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VOLKSWAGEN GOLF 1.6 TDI 115 CV IQ-DRIVE FULL OPTIONAL, time: 5:50

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Bluetooth should be easy. The central government oversees the process. Probably the PLL cannot hop fast enough to do the frequency hopping, but it has an NCO that can be used to digitally hop the frequency which works instantly. But that s the thing it s not doing that. It s generating the modulated carrier, receiving and demodulating the signal. It s putting out 0 dBm 1mWwhich is a couple of orders of magnitude short of being a useful amount of power for actual communications.

Even that is with external narrow band. Note the triple-stub tuner in Figure 25. When set up in a broadband 50 ohm environment, expect the transmit power to be even lower. This thread seems to be full of shills, Truth and softradiolover. I backed the product, I have read a lot about their chips, dissected their source code. I feel people should back the product if they want cheap hardware.

But I have also pointed where to get cheaper antennas and pigtails. I ve been on this site for 5 years search for my username and you will see thousands of posts. oh grandpa, nowadays its all digital domain, as long as you can sample enough bandwidth you are fine. Okay, that made my day, thanks. Nope, still not feeling it. Well, first of all you d need a power amplifier with sufficient linearity to cover the peak-to-average power ratio PAPR of LTE while meeting its stringent spectral regrowth specs.

What, exactly, would a front-end architecture look like that would accommodate LTE, WLAN, BT, and any of a number of different other standards and proprietary schemes you d care to throw at it, and be future proof. 4 GHz ISM band. Now make that PA broad-band enough to cover the 2. Dicey, but maybe still doable. At what point do you throw up your hands. Okay, so let s move to a bandswitched approach. You re simply not going to do 10W with fantastic linearity over 4 decades of frequency.

How many bands do you need to cover to satisfy everyone. With what linearity. Harmonic performance. At what cost. Next receive. Okay, fine, the cellular base station guys do that all day long, though it s not particularly cheap, compact, or efficient. What was the intermod performance. Bet you could hit those specs over a few tens of MHz, maybe even an octave if they re not terribly stringent.

You ever try to build a low-noise receive frontend to cover one band. Four decades. Nope, not a chance. Again with the bandswitching. Oh hey, you ve got an in-band image issue. Bet you wish you could filter. Haha, nope, not if you want a Swiss army knife. Let s talk concurrent operation. Smartphone designers spend a whole lot of time figuring out how to structure their radios to prevent the Wi-Fi and BT transmitters from desensing the LTE Band 1 receiver.

Lots of filtering and shielding, and many times it still takes a few tries. That s 2-3 known standards. Extend that to N standards where N is unknown, ever increasing, and already large. Remember above how we had to band-switch our transmit and receive chains. What happens when three different radios need to transmit and receive on three different bands.

Who gets what when. It s a trainwreck. What s that transmit intermod look like. Again, no fair filtering. With band-specific and likely application specific front-ends, I see the LimeSDR being a really neat tool. How about two different standards transmitting in-band. I m an early-bird backer. As a DC-daylight does-all radio out of the box.

No way, not a chance. JEESH How many different crowd funding sites ARE there. Crowd Supply has 100 success rate for delivery, their approach to crowdfunding is really different. Some well known open-hardware projects like Novena, USB Armory or Librem Laptop has been successfuly funded there. Cool, thanks for those. All the specs seems very promising for this price and LIme Micro has endorsed open source SDR from early on.

However I don t understand why they have chosen Hirose U. They are designed for 30 mating cycles which makes sense for mini-pcie wifi or 3G interfaces inside laptops. FL for the RF connectors. For an SDR platform one would often change the antennas and connections. An obvious chose would have been any SMA connectors which support around 500 mating cycles.

Of course one can always use adapters, but adapters introduce insertion and return loss. Another minor annoying issue is the choice of USB type A connector which exceeds the board sedimentation. It s just not tidy in my opinion. I think type B would have been a better choice and does not require one more extension cable.

Likely because everybody will be using SMA or N pigtails to the u. fl connectors. They even sell a set of u. fl sma pigtails and antennas for it. The second reason is that using adapter cables instead of SMA s is space and making cases. This way the enduser has much more flexibility when it comes to the case selection and design. The board is also a 12layer design I cloned the git repo and took a look in Altium with stuff in the layers under the u.

SMD SMA s might not be sturdy enough. But I do agree that cheap cables might not have the best returnloss nor PIM performance. But this is not telecom grade stuff, more like something for hobbyist and academical setting, so it might not be a huge problem. On the USB connector front I agree. I guess they choose the male USB3-A so that it could be plugged in to stuff like laptips directly, as bad of an idea it is.

The git repo also has board files for a version with USB3-A female connector, but no USB3-B It might also be that USB3-B cables are less available than USB3-A. Anyway, I m designing my own case for it instead of the acrylic and aluminium one s they sell. I m not playing 200usd for a plastic case or 300usd for an aluminium one. I already made a. I ll most likely stuff it inside a hammond box. step model of the pcb with reduced detail for CAD ing the case work all nice and professional.

I m also planing on so it might happen at some point designing a simple 4layer or 2layer PCB with the same dimensions and connector locations as LimeSDR for testing out cases. As the LimeSDR will ship in December 2016 at the earliest and it s hard to build cases for thing you don t have at hand. Never has the need for a U. FL SMT plug been more pronounced. I wonder if there s some other hack that could be brought to bear for that. I m loath to buy up to ten adapter cables just to tie this thing to a filter amplifier switch board.

Hey 2ftg, I see you also forked their github repo for case purposes I just received my next enclosure candidate 97x40x100 I have a board ready LimeSDR with identical connectors, even micro USB 3. 1 so my back panel will fit 85. All files are available, KiCad style. Any suggestions on design would be appreciated. Especially, do I include power, usb and user LEDs on Front Panel. I think as you mentioned it is about the board size, 8 SMA connectors would have taken much more space.

One should keep in mind though to fix and screw the pigtail adapters on the case, otherwise having the cable wobbling around can easily damage u. Nice that you are planning early for a proper case. com matchstiq which also has a SBC to make it fully independent and suitable for embedded applications. I am thinking of doing the same, putting LimeSDR and a SBC supporting USB 3.

0 together in a rugged aluminium case. org x15 seems to be a very good candidate. 0plenty of RAM, two C66 DSPs four PRUs and two M4s. It even has two 1G Ethernet interfaces which is sufficient for forwarding full 61. It would be an interesting mix of technologies and I am curious to see if DSPs and PRUs enables more applications than the on-board FPGA. If you look at the board there are 11 ufl connectors 3 RX3 RX2 TX, 2 TX and 1 external reference clock.

bottom right, near the USB connector. There are two connectors on the board for a fan J19 and J20. I wonder do the cases need extra cooling. I should pay more attention. html the Cyclone IV power is well below 200 mW and hence no need for cooling. The RF chip consumes at most 880 mW in full 2 2 MIMO mode 550mW in SISO mode. The USB 3 interface chip should also be very low power. 44 MSPS raw IQ samples.

The voltage option golf 7 iqdrive has a very good heat-sink. The clock source is a VCTCXO 30. 72MHz 250 ppbtherefore temperature compensated. I would say no active cooling is required but I am no expert on this topic. You might want to double check your maths 1Gbit sec 100Mbit sec is 1,100,000,000 bits second. 44 MSPS IQ is 122. 88 MSPS Real, each sample is 12 bits so in theory that would be 1,474,560,000 bits second. If you read the AM572x Sitara Processors Silicon Errata Silicon Revision 2.

H for the am5728 CPU one of the Ethernet ports RGMII2 is Limited to 10 100 Mbps. It is a very nice board though. Good catch, I though both interfaces operate at 1 Gb s simultaneously. It is actually a 10 100 1000 2-Port 1Gb switch, so that is worse. The maximum with both are combined is 1,000,000,000 bits sec. Gnuradio has pybombs tool to isntall gnuradio and apps.

The problem here is that things who depend on gnuradio ussually are not version compatible in future. Just informed I am a backer that there is now the option to change to a micro B style USB connection. p 3122 LimeSDR 12 layer PCB opened the 12 gerber files and checked. I ve concluded that they must be selling these with a really tight margin, and my question is why. The LimeSDR board has 7 ground planes between the clock layer and the top of the analogue section of the board.

It has very few clock traces go to that side of the board. On paper it is a good solid design. I just do not get why they are selling these boards this price. Are they dumping old stock before they start to ship their new LMS8001 chip that goes from 100kHz to 12GHz. Although to be fair this crowd campaign will not ship many units. 2000 chip boards if they just reach their funding goal. I should probably add that I ve just backed it as well. I went with the USB type B connector but that delays delivery until Dec 2016.

I have wanted to get an SDR for so long I guess I can wait 6 more months. Anyone know when the 199 early birds get theirs. I hope it gets fully funded. They are so close that I cannot imagine they would cancel it all now. Wow only 14 hours to go, the campain is a 95 I hope they will reach the goal of 500. 000 because it s an really capable device imho. com lime-micro limesdr There are enough devices for 249 left, we just ordered two. I m finding the LimeSDR with the four antennas and aluminum case to be a great white noise generator, but I have yet to hear it do anything else.

I ve looked at example after example, installed lots of Ubuntu packages, git cloned and built from the source, and still nothing. Kravcoff for binary options trading. Super Point Signal - Russian profitable indicator for binary options. Super Point Signal is a very successful development of Russian programmers in particular Mr. We all know that Russian programmers are very strong in the development of software for MT4. They are particularly strong in hacking and decoding of various programs.

So this time we are dealing with a very good and accurate indicator. Super Point Signal indicator is versatile and can be used for any trading assets and on any timeframes. In trade, indicator is intuitive, even though the text in the alert in Russian. Characteristics of the Super Point Signal. Platform Metatrader4 Asset Any assets Trading Time Around the clock Timeframe Any Expiry 1 candles 5 minutes for M5, 15 minutes for M15 etc.

Recommended broker BinomoBinaryIQOption. Super Point Signal is not repaint. Rules of trade by Super Point Signal. So, how to trade using the Super Point Signal. The vertical yellow dashed line shows a candle on which the purchase option and its expiration time the closing of the current candle. Of course, before trading on a live account, Super Point Signal indicator must be tested on a demo account. Algorithm of indicator is unknown. Do not interfere with additional filters.

p, blockquote 10,0,0,1,0 -. Very simple - wait until the appropriate signal red or blue circle and buy options with expiration 1 candle. In the archive Super_Point_Signal. p, blockquote 13,0,0,0,0 -- Super-Point-Signal. ex4 Super Point Signal temp. tpl p, blockquote 14,0,0,0,1 -. Free Download Super Point Signal. No,I mean,this,its The greatest,like Alexander thanks God we have a Russian s.

Let2s go back to see football. Hello, have you used this indicator super point signal before. and please what is the winning rate. DOES IT DISAPPEAR OR APPEAR LATE ON THE CANDLE. Indicator gives the delayed signal Impossible to trade in 1 candle, 5 or 15 minutes. В инструкции ясно сказано - вход на вторую свечу после сигнала. Dear Daniel i am on 1TF and 5TF and the Indicator delays the dot and massage delay in 1-2 candle after how we fix it please.

thank you any way for free indicators. Indicator delays. The signal apears, when the candle is well in progress. It means - on a history everything is Ok, but in real time - you will have a lot of false signals. It is impossible to trade for one candle. hi it s a great indicator but with alrm it will the best can told me how to put one if it s possible etienne from france. The default in the template alarm is true.

Hi thks to be fast for reply ; i got a questionit s possible to make the alarm appear at the same time the dot appear that will be perfect. thks see u soon Etienne. Hi again ,what is the setting bars process 10000. sorry i just even though the text in the alert in Russian. Hi i don t know if u saw my first questionbecause i don t see it, i put again, it s possible to modify the indicator that the dot and alarm appear in the same time because right the is 1,30 mins between signal and dot it s very look my screen shoot thks u Daniel.

and if u got other nice profitable strategie that u use i m opensee u soon etienne. Hi guys i asked before why is there no files after download. the signal appears on the previous candle which is the last finished. which means the entry should be on the active candle which is current not closed. But I observed it and I saw the signal came long after the current candle is in progress up or down which make difficult momentum to be caught.

It can be seen ot the ettiene s comment with the snap shot. Thats a complete Bullshit indicator. don t waste even 1 second on this. Dot appears when the next candle is already spent 80 time. absolutely pathetic. Absolutely the best indicator ever. Yes it is true the signals arrives at the end of the first candle where the signal appears or at half of the secondcandle but in TF1 If you arre ready to enter into the trade with a click you will have an amazing succes rate.

Hello Daniel, can you point me in the direction where to look under the hood. - that would be greatly appreciated. Can you explain, please, how to trade the next candle if the dot shows up delayed on the previous candle. If the current candle has been running for a while and THEN the signal shows up on the PREVIOUS candle, how do you trade that. I m we would all like to know. People fail to understand the purpose on any indicator.

An indicator cannot tell you the future u cannot trade on the opening of the candlestick wer the dot first appears it price can still reverse if news come in and every currency pair is a correlation with one another that makes prices to be unpredictable. AN INDICATOR CAN ONLY TELL YOU WHAT HAS HAPPENED AND WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN NEXT, NO INDICATOR IN THE WORLD WILL TELL YOU THE FUTURE WITH A 100 ACCURACY You will not find it any where online so stop system hopping. im using 1min chart on this indicator and im winning 80-90 of my trades by following the rules above.

Any advice on what other indicators to use with this one. Hey Daniel, The signals seems very strong on the chart history. But it s true that the alert comes late, and if you fix this issue then i can say that it s a HOLY GRAIL strategy. Looking forward your quicker response _. hi i am testing this but it seem to alert u mid way through the candle. how do you apply these to mt4. do i still take the trade for 1 min 5 min. I do agree with everyone else that some of the signals come in late. Dude it works.

Must be how it is configured. But making money with it so far so good. This is lagging indicator with false signals. А мне понравился этот индикатор,нужно просто уметь и понимать торговлю. do u have bow indicators. Hello CAlvinM. I will like to ask. Are you still winning at the rate of 80-90 on the M1 expiry. Do you enter the trades immediately the signal appears. If you enter a 1 minute trade at say 09 40 28, does your broker allow it to expire at 09 40 59 or it expires at 09 41 28.

This last question is very important and determines the success or failure of the strategy. hi, i saw your indicator and i find it excellent, thus, i am expert advisors creator, is there a way to send me the source. i can perform it and make it automatic so we can launch it as a bot and avoid being scotching in front of the screen. who knows the original author of this indicator website any info for other products developed by him.

I can t download the indicator ,can you please send files for via my email. hello Sir cant download this indicator can you please send it to me via email. What session do you trade. 5 Things Businesses Misunderstand About 5G And What They Really Mean. Businesses small and large will be able to use 5G technology to improve operations, better serve customers, and leapfrog competitors. If you re not sure what that means, don t worry, you re not alone.

Despite its ability to change how companies across industries do business, the next-generation cellular network still remains widely misunderstood. Most media coverage has focused on the technology s ability to deliver faster speeds around 20 times that of 4G. However, this only represents one component of the disruption and enterprise capabilities that 5G is poised to deliver, for Fortune 500 companies and small businesses alike. Below, we unpack the truth behind five common misconceptions about 5G and its impact on businesses large and small.

5G is just about speed. Much of the buzz around 5G has focused on the potential to enhance speed. It s understandable; download and upload speeds alike on some types of 5G connections will be ridiculously fast downloading an entire movie in 35 seconds, for instance, vs. 27 minutes on an average LTE network today. Yet the attention on speed, while warranted, can detract from 5G s other, equally impactful benefits. 5G is a broad and versatile technology. It s not about one thing like speed or one use-case like fixed-wireless access, says Karri Kuoppamaki, Vice President, Technology Development and Strategy at T-Mobile who plays a key role in the company s 5G deployment.

Instead, it s about building on what is in place today while at the same time improving it, and perhaps more importantly, expanding the scope of wireless technologies to new capabilities, services, segments, and enterprise services that have specific requirements that today s technologies don t address but 5G can. Far greater than 4G, 5G s bandwidth will provide the wide-scale ubiquitous coverage necessary for devices from phones to cars to interface with one another and their surroundings.

And its low latency the ability for the network to process data with short, almost non-existent lag time could eliminate barriers for use cases like self-driving cars or virtual reality, which require near-instantaneous feedback. The 5G wave is fast approaching. 5G also promises to unlock significantly improved battery life which is a boon for various Internet of Things IoT applications. 5G is a platform for innovation, says Susan Welsh de Grimaldo, an industry analyst and director at Strategy Analytics.

She believes that wide-ranging versatility, rather than one or two features, makes the technology truly revolutionary and capable of not only improving a dizzying array of operations but enabling entirely new ones. Welsh de Grimaldo continues saying, in the future, a 5G network will power interconnected cities, autonomous cars, and automated manufacturing, which are just a few examples of applications that 4G can t fully support today.

Will Townsend, a senior industry analyst at Moor Insights and Strategy, says, a lot of times when people talk about 5G, it s very grand. It s autonomous driving, it s smart factories or applications that enterprises with big budgets can only afford. However, the delivery of real-time, high-resolution mobile video capabilities given the low latency will unlock a host of use cases for smaller businesses, from technical troubleshooting in the field to immersive service delivery. Many small business owners still have challenges with getting affordable, consistent internet connectivity an issue that is even greater for businesses in rural communities who have been left on the wrong side of the digital divide.

For small businesses in particular, one of the problems has been a lack of competitive options when it comes to connectivity, says Anshel Sag, an industry analyst at Moor Insights and Strategy. 5G technology is only relevant for big businesses. I think with 5G, you are going to start seeing a lot more competition in having affordable and fast internet connectivity. The corresponding implications are important for small businesses, from fundamentals such as reliable mobile coverage to next-generation use-cases like VR-based collaboration tools and predictive maintenance systems.

Each new era of connectivity helps level the playing field for small business, says Mike Katz, Executive Vice President, T-Mobile for Business, who leads the company s B2B strategy. Before 4G, services such as ridesharing, cloud storage and new mobile social media applications weren t possible at scale. The 3G networks that preceded 4G simply weren t fast, strong, or reliable enough to process the vast amounts of data required to make them a great experience.

5G represents the opportunity for an exponentially larger leap forward than previous wireless network upgrades so the potential scale of change will be much greater for small, medium and large businesses alike. 5G and 4G are not compatible. Historically, each iteration of wireless network technology has replaced the previous generation. Today, if you have a smartphone, it can connect to 2G, 3G, or 4G but only one at a time, Kuoppamaki says.

Not so with 5G, which is the first technology generation that will allow devices to connect to both 5G and 4G LTE at the same time. In other words, 5G doesn t supersede 4G, it enhances it. As 5G networks continue to mature they will rely, at least at first, on 4G capabilities. It s going to be the best of both worlds in terms of experience, Kuoppamaki says. On a practical level, this means many applications that work fine on 4G such as video conferencing, smartphones, and augmented reality will experience gradual improvements as 5G is added to the existing 4G network.

The technology is glitchy and won t work in buildings. 5G does not operate at its best on a single spectrum. Imagine how an even seconds-long delay could affect the safety of your ride. Instead, it can be deployed on three main layers, each with its own strengths, which complement one another. It is also capable of supporting extended battery life for IoT devices, some up to 10 years. Low-band spectrum, typically a spectrum below 1GHz, can provide wide, consistent coverage that doesn t require a high data transfer but is critical to enabling nationwide 5G coverage, including in rural areas still struggling to connect to high-speed internet.

Next is mid-band spectrum usually between 1GHz and 6GHz a high-capacity, low-latency spectrum capable of handling use cases such as augmented reality, wearables, and critical IoT applications that need near-instantaneous data response rates. Unfortunately, most mid-band spectrum is unavailable for 5G because it s already in use for 4G LTE, and redeploying spectrum will take time. And at the top, there are the ultra-high frequencies, such as millimeter wave, typically a spectrum above 24GHz, which can be deployed to provide lightning-fast data speed, far greater capacity, quality, and low latency, but do not travel far, and can t penetrate buildings or even windows.

In practical deployments of mmWave spectrum, we ve seen cell ranges of anywhere between a couple hundred feet to maybe a thousand feet or so, Kuoppamaki says. While millimeter wave is very good for high traffic hot spots in an urban environment, Kuoppamaki says, in and of itself it s not the answer to 5G. However, most applications don t need ultra-high speeds; they need consistent coverage.

Lower frequencies are able to go through concrete walls and brick in a way a millimeter wave signal never could, says Sag. High frequencies also don t penetrate objects well, which has led to the belief that 5G doesn t work in buildings. Once the network is mature, the interplay of all three spectrums means you will be able to get more signal in more places than you ever could before.

Sag noted that this will ultimately unlock new, innovative solutions for next-generation applications that require high-bandwidth, low latency and always-on connectivity such as self-driving cars and drone delivery. 5G won t be available for at least a couple years. People s biggest apprehension is that the technology is not ready but I think businesses should be constantly re-assessing whether 5G makes sense for them today, and constantly looking at what offerings are available in their area, Sag says.

Things are changing so quickly; maybe 5G doesn t make sense for your business today, but there is a possibility that in five months the network will change drastically and it s now to your benefit to have 5G. By the end of 2019, businesses and consumers will experience the first taste of what 5G is all about and what its capabilities are, Kuoppamaki says.

In terms of rollout, history is a great teacher. The first 4G networks were launched about a decade ago; while the user experience was vastly superior to 3G, it took time for people and businesses to understand its capabilities. That s the beauty of 5G it s a transformational power that may not be evident from day one but, once available everywhere, will start stimulating innovation very quickly, Kuoppamaki says.

T-Mobile for Business brings the Un-carrier experience to customers unwilling to settle. Leading the 5G charge with a network built from the ground up for the next wave. Leading the 5G charge with a network built from the ground up for the next wave of innovation, we have businesses of all sizes ready for the future of wireless. From mobile broadband to IoT and everything in between, T-Mobile for Business is committed to helping you move your business forward with the products and services you need, as well as the dedicated, award-winning service you deserve from America s most loved wireless company.

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The first use of the concept of a singularity in the technological context was John von Neumann. The technological singularity also, simply, the singularity 1 is a hypothetical point in time at which technological growth becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, resulting in unforeseeable changes to human civilization. Technological singularity. 4 Stanislaw Ulam reports a discussion with von Neumann centered on the accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.

The concept and the term singularity were popularized by Vernor Vinge in his 1993 essay The Coming Technological Singularityin which he wrote that it would signal the end of the human era, as the new superintelligence would continue to upgrade itself and would advance technologically at an incomprehensible rate. He wrote that he would be surprised if it occurred before 2005 or after 2030. 5 Subsequent authors have echoed this viewpoint. Public figures such as Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk have expressed concern that full artificial intelligence AI could result in human extinction.

8 9 The consequences of the singularity and its potential benefit or harm to the human race have been intensely debated. Four polls of AI researchers, conducted in 2012 and 2013 by Nick Bostrom and Vincent C. Müller, suggested a median probability estimate of 50 that artificial general intelligence AGI would be developed by 2040 2050. 1 Emergence of superintelligence 3. 2 Non-AI singularity 3. 3 Speed superintelligence 4 Plausibility 4. 1 Speed improvements 4.

1 Exponential growth 4. 2 Accelerating change 4. 2 Algorithm improvements 4. 3 Criticisms 5 Potential impacts 5. 1 Uncertainty and risk 5. 2 Next step of sociobiological evolution 5. 3 Implications for human society 6 Hard vs. soft takeoff 7 Immortality 8 History of the concept 9 In politics 10 See also 11 References 11. 2 Sources 12 Further reading 13 External links. 1 Background 2 Intelligence explosion 3 Other manifestations 3. Although technological progress has been accelerating, it has been limited by the basic intelligence of the human brain, which has not, according to Paul R.

Ehrlich, changed significantly for millennia. 12 However, with the increasing power of computers and other technologies, it might eventually be possible to build a machine that is significantly more intelligent than humans. If a superhuman intelligence were to be invented either through the amplification of human intelligence or through artificial intelligence it would bring to bear greater problem-solving and inventive skills than current humans are capable of. Such an AI is referred to as Seed AI 14 15 because if an AI were created with engineering capabilities that matched or surpassed those of its human creators, it would have the potential to autonomously improve its own software and hardware or design an even more capable machine.

This more capable machine could then go on to design a machine of yet greater capability. These iterations option golf 7 iqdrive recursive self-improvement could accelerate, potentially allowing enormous qualitative change before any upper limits imposed by the laws of physics or theoretical computation set in. It is speculated that over many iterations, such an AI would far surpass human cognitive abilities.

Intelligence explosion is a possible outcome of humanity building artificial general intelligence AGI. AGI would be capable of recursive self-improvement, leading to the rapid emergence of artificial superintelligence ASIthe limits of which are unknown, shortly after technological singularity is achieved. Good speculated in 1965 that artificial general intelligence might bring about an intelligence explosion. He speculated on the effects of superhuman machines, should they ever be invented 16.

Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an intelligence explosion, and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make, provided that the machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control.

Good s scenario runs as follows as computers increase in power, it becomes possible for people to build a machine that is more intelligent than humanity; this superhuman intelligence possesses greater problem-solving and inventive skills than current humans are capable of. These iterations of recursive self-improvement accelerate, allowing enormous qualitative change before any upper option golf 7 iqdrive imposed by the laws of physics or theoretical computation set in.

Emergence of superintelligence Edit. Good s intelligence explosion model predicts that a future superintelligence will trigger a singularity. This superintelligent machine then designs an even more capable machine, or re-writes its own software to become even more intelligent; this even more capable machine then goes on to design a machine of yet greater capability, and so on. A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds.

They argue that it is difficult or impossible for present-day humans to predict what human beings lives would be like in a post-singularity world. John von Neumann, Vernor Vinge and Ray Kurzweil define the concept in terms of the technological creation of super intelligence. Superintelligence may also refer to the form or degree of intelligence possessed by such an agent. Technology forecasters and researchers disagree about if or when human intelligence is likely to be surpassed.

Some argue that advances in artificial intelligence AI will probably result in general reasoning systems that lack human option golf 7 iqdrive limitations. Others believe that humans will evolve or directly modify their biology so as to achieve radically greater intelligence. A number of futures studies scenarios combine elements from both of these possibilities, suggesting that humans are likely to interface with computers, or upload their minds to computers, in a way that enables substantial intelligence amplification.

Non-AI singularity Edit. Some writers use the singularity in a broader way to refer to any radical changes in our society option golf 7 iqdrive about by new technologies such as molecular nanotechnology, 18 19 20 although Vinge and other writers specifically state that without superintelligence, such changes would not qualify as a true singularity. Speed superintelligence Edit. A speed superintelligence describes an AI that can do everything that a human can do, where the only difference is that the machine runs faster.

21 For example, with a million-fold increase in the speed of information processing relative to that of humans, a subjective year would pass in 30 physical seconds. 22 Such a difference in information processing speed could drive the singularity. Many prominent technologists and academics dispute the plausibility of a technological singularity, including Paul Allen, Jeff Hawkins, John Holland, Jaron Lanier, and Gordon Moore, whose law is often cited in support of the concept.

Most proposed methods for creating superhuman or transhuman minds fall into one of two categories intelligence amplification of human brains and artificial intelligence. The speculated ways to produce intelligence augmentation are many, and include bioengineering, genetic engineering, nootropic drugs, AI assistants, direct brain computer interfaces and mind uploading.

Because multiple paths to an intelligence explosion are being explored, it makes a singularity more likely; for a singularity to not occur they would all have to fail. Robin Hanson expressed skepticism of human intelligence augmentation, writing that once the low-hanging fruit of easy methods for increasing human intelligence have been exhausted, further improvements will become increasingly difficult to find.

27 Despite all of the speculated ways for amplifying human intelligence, non-human artificial intelligence specifically seed AI is the most popular option among the hypotheses that would advance the singularity. 28 The first accelerating factor is the new intelligence enhancements made possible by each previous improvement. Each improvement should beget at least one more improvement, on average, for movement towards singularity to continue.

Whether or not an intelligence explosion occurs depends on three factors. Finally, the laws of physics will eventually prevent any further improvements. Contrariwise, as the intelligences become more advanced, further advances will become more and more complicated, possibly overcoming the advantage of increased intelligence. There are two logically independent, but mutually reinforcing, causes of intelligence improvements increases in the speed of computation, and improvements to the algorithms used.

29 The former is predicted by Moore s Law and the forecasted improvements in hardware, 30 and is comparatively similar to previous technological advances. But there are some AI researchers who. who believe software is more important than hardware. 31 citation needed. A 2017 email survey of authors with publications at the 2015 NeurIPS and ICML machine learning conferences asked about the chance of an intelligence explosion. Of the respondents, 12 said it was quite likely17 said it was likely21 said it was about even24 said it was unlikely and 26 said it was quite unlikely.

Speed improvements Edit. Both for human and artificial intelligence, hardware improvements increase the rate of future hardware improvements. Simply put, 33 Moore s Law suggests that if the first doubling of speed took 18 months, the second would take 18 subjective months; or 9 external months, whereafter, four months, two months, and so on towards a speed singularity.

34 An upper limit on speed may eventually be reached, although it is unclear how high this would be. Jeff Hawkins has stated that a self-improving computer system would inevitably run into upper limits on computing power in the end there are limits to how big and fast computers can run. We would end up in the same place; we d just get there a bit faster. There would be no singularity.

It is difficult to directly compare silicon-based hardware with neurons. But Berglas 2008 notes that computer speech recognition is approaching human capabilities, and that this capability seems to require 0. This analogy suggests that modern computer hardware is within a few orders of magnitude of being as powerful as the human brain.

01 of the volume of the brain. Exponential growth Edit. The exponential growth in computing technology suggested by Moore s law is commonly cited as a reason to expect a singularity in the relatively near future, and a number of authors have proposed generalizations of Moore s law. Computer scientist and futurist Hans Moravec proposed in a 1998 book 36 that the exponential growth curve could be extended back through earlier computing technologies prior to the integrated circuit.

Ray Kurzweil postulates a law of accelerating returns in which the speed of technological change and more generally, all evolutionary processes 37 increases exponentially, generalizing Moore s law in the same manner as Moravec s proposal, and also including material technology especially as applied to nanotechnologymedical technology and others. Kurzweil reserves the term singularity for a rapid increase in artificial intelligence as opposed to other technologieswriting for example that The Singularity will allow us to transcend these limitations of our biological bodies and brains.

38 Between 1986 and 2007, machines application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months; the per capita capacity of the world s general-purpose computers has doubled every 18 months; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; and the world s storage capacity per capita doubled every 40 months. There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine.

40 He also defines his predicted date of the singularity 2045 in terms of when he expects computer-based intelligences to significantly exceed the sum total of human brainpower, writing that advances in computing before that date will not represent the Singularity because they do not yet correspond to a profound expansion of our intelligence. Accelerating change Edit. Some singularity proponents argue its inevitability through extrapolation of past trends, especially those pertaining to shortening gaps between improvements to technology.

In one of the first uses of the term singularity in the context of technological progress, Stanislaw Ulam tells of a conversation with John von Neumann about accelerating change. One conversation centered on the ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.

Kurzweil claims that technological progress follows a pattern of exponential growth, following what he calls the law of accelerating returns. Whenever technology approaches a barrier, Kurzweil writes, new technologies will surmount it. He predicts paradigm shifts will become increasingly common, leading to technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history.

42 Kurzweil believes that the singularity will occur by approximately 2045. 43 His predictions differ from Vinge s in that he predicts a gradual ascent to the singularity, rather than Vinge s rapidly self-improving superhuman intelligence. Oft-cited dangers include those commonly associated with molecular nanotechnology and genetic engineering. These threats are major issues for both singularity advocates and critics, and were the subject of Bill Joy s Wired magazine article Why the future doesn t need us.

Algorithm improvements Edit. Some intelligence technologies, like seed AI14 15 may also have the potential to not just make themselves faster, but also more efficient, by modifying their source code. These improvements would make further improvements possible, which would make further improvements possible, and so on. The mechanism for a recursively self-improving set of algorithms differs from an increase in raw computation speed in two ways. First, it does not require external influence machines designing faster hardware would still require humans to create the improved hardware, or to program factories appropriately.

citation needed An AI rewriting its own source code could do so while contained in an AI box. Second, as with Vernor Vinge s conception of the singularity, it is much harder to predict the outcome. While speed increases seem to be only a quantitative difference from human intelligence, actual algorithm improvements would be qualitatively different.

Eliezer Yudkowsky compares it to the changes that human intelligence brought humans changed the world thousands of times more rapidly than evolution had done, and in totally different ways. Similarly, the evolution of life was a massive departure and acceleration from the previous geological rates of change, and improved intelligence could cause change to be as different again. There are substantial dangers associated with an intelligence explosion singularity originating from a recursively self-improving set of algorithms.

First, the goal structure of the AI might not be invariant under self-improvement, potentially causing the AI to optimise for something other than what was originally intended. 46 47 Secondly, AIs could compete for the same scarce resources mankind uses to survive. Carl Shulman and Anders Sandberg suggest that algorithm improvements may be the limiting factor for a singularity; while hardware efficiency tends to improve at a steady pace, software innovations are more unpredictable and may be bottlenecked by serial, cumulative research.

While not actively malicious, there is no reason to think that AIs would actively promote human goals unless they could be programmed as such, and if not, might use the resources currently used to support mankind to promote its own goals, causing human extinction. They suggest that in the case of a software-limited singularity, intelligence explosion would actually become more likely than with a hardware-limited singularity, because in the software-limited case, once human-level AI is developed, it could run serially on very fast hardware, and the abundance of cheap hardware would make AI research less constrained.

53 An abundance of accumulated hardware that can be unleashed once the software figures out how to use it has been called computing overhang. Criticisms Edit. Some critics, like philosopher Hubert Dreyfus, assert that computers or machines cannot achieve human intelligence, while others, like physicist Stephen Hawking, hold that the definition of intelligence is irrelevant if the net result is the same.

Psychologist Steven Pinker stated in 2008. There is not the slightest reason to believe in a coming singularity. The fact that you can visualize a future in your imagination is not evidence that it is likely or even possible. Look at domed cities, jet-pack commuting, underwater cities, mile-high buildings, and nuclear-powered automobiles all staples of futuristic fantasies when I was a child that have never arrived. Sheer processing power is not a pixie dust that magically solves all your problems.

Computers have, literally. no intelligence, no motivation, no autonomy, and no agency. We design them to behave as if they had certain sorts of psychology, but there is no psychological reality to the corresponding processes or behavior. T he machinery has no beliefs, desires, or motivations. Martin Ford in The Lights in the Tunnel Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future 57 postulates a technology paradox in that before the singularity could occur most routine jobs in the economy would be automated, since this would require a level of technology inferior to that of the singularity.

Job displacement is increasingly no longer limited to work traditionally considered to be routine. This would cause massive unemployment and plummeting consumer demand, which in turn would destroy the incentive to invest in the technologies that would be required to bring about the Singularity. Evidence for this decline is that the rise in computer clock rates is slowing, even while Moore s prediction of exponentially increasing circuit density continues to hold.

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