According to the report, which U. officials later confirmed, asatellite was launched, intercepted and destroyed a Feng Yun 1C weathersatellite, also belonging to China, on Jan. The eu.iq options satellite eu.iq options into polar orbit in 1999. The precise means of destruction is notclear, but it appears to have been a kinetic strike meaning physicalintercept, not laser that broke the satellite into many pieces.
government wants to reveal as much information as possible about this event in orderto show its concern -- and to show the Chinese how closely the Americans aremonitoring their actions. This event opens up the totally new front to defendagainst. It is of the utmost concern to the United States militaryestablishment. 17 magazinereport was not the first U. intelligence leak about Chinese ASATcapabilities. It has become clear that China is in the process of acquiring the technology needed to destroy or blind satellitesin at least low-Earth orbit, which is where intelligence-gathering satellitestend to operate.
Nuclear Proliferation. What is difficultto understand is that after the severe danger of nuclear war during the longdecades of the Cold War, we are still only 30-minutes or less from nuclearincineration. The reason is that included among the 27,000 nuclear weaponsstockpiled in the world, thousands of U. and Russian strategic nuclearwarheads are on hair-trigger alert. The RAND Corporation reports these weaponscould be launched in a few minutes notice destroying both countries in an hour.
Russia s defense minister SergeiIvanov on February 7 laid out a plan that aims to surpass Soviet-eramilitary might. A rising tide of oil revenues has enabled Russia to boost defense spending following a squeeze on the military in the 1990s. SergeiIvanov s statements appeared aimed at raising his profile at home ahead of the2008 election in which he is widely seen as a potential contender to succeedPresident Vladimir Putin.
relations and the Kremlin s concern about U. But they also seemed to reflect a growing chill inRussian-U. missile defense plans. See also the article The GrandChess Masters--The Bear and the Dragon by David J. While Moscow has confronted fundamentalists at homehead-on, it nonetheless pursues a policy of support for Iran and Syria--and, by extension, Hezbollah. In doing so, Russia s foreign policy has becomeantithetical to its own national security. The risk nuclearmiscalculations is further increased by the expansion of the number of nuclearpowers with the means available for delivery and transnational organizationssuch as Al Qaeda and Hezbollah acquiring nuclear materials.
In August 2006, the usual sources reported China had directed lasers against U. Although some of thepotential new entrants into the Nuclear Club are considered friendly, futureregime change may make them unstable and future foes as occurred in Iran. The threat stillposed by these stockpiles and the new entrants into the Nuclear Club,particularly in the wake of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, is so dire thatBulletin of the Atomic Scientists BAS --the keepers of the Doomsday Clockcited the issue as among their chief concerns last month when they moved theiconic measure of global security forward from seven to five minutes beforemidnight.
The increasing danger is the proliferation of nuclear weapons states,now numbering eight or nine, along with the prospect of others joining this macabreclub in the near future. Nuclear arms racesmight emerge in regions other than the Middle East as well. Such a doomsday scenario could result from an accidental missile launch, an earlywarning system error, terrorism, miscalculation or simply desire for worlddomination.
Nuclear ArmedCountries are arising in Asia. The Asian countries are becoming morenationalistic. Asia has many countries with major territorial or politicaldisputes, including five with nuclear weapons China, India, North Korea, Pakistan, and Russia. Most of thesecountries would have the resources to increase the size and quality of theirnuclear arsenals indefinitely if they so chose.
They also seem to benationalist in a way that western European countries no longer are they areparticularly mindful of their sovereignty, relatively uninterested ininternational organizations, sensitive to slights, and wary about changes inthe regional balance of military power. Many of the components of the worldwide war with jihadism are con centrated in Pakistan.
So far, Paki stan s radical Islamists havebeen able to block their government from taking back control of the country swestern tribal areas and uprooting the funda mentalist organizations in itseast. Japan and Taiwan could join the list. But potentially even more dangerous is the possibility that jihadists couldtake control of Pakistan s nuclear arsenal.
Should thishappen, the U. In this context, the most seri ousthreat to the United States would be the collapse of the Musharraf gov ernmentand the Pakistani military at the hands of radical Islamists. would be under direct nuclear threat from a nuclear-armedal-Qaeda regime--one that would have tremendous control over many other Muslimcountries. Asia might well be, ripe for rivalry --including nuclear rivalry if the United States were to stopserving as guarantor of the current order.
In that case, the region would raiseproblems similar to those that would be posed by a nuclear Middle East. If and when the U. is able to lift its attention from the Middle East, it will be finding itself a much betterplaced and more formidable China. See TheTruth About Talibanistan, Time August 2, 2006. Six states--Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, according to theInternational Atomic Energy Agency are planning to go nuclear.
In all sixcases, they are talking only of developing civilian nuclear energy programs, asinternational law permits that. Mark Fitzpatrick of the International Institute forStrategic Studies assumes these states want a security hedge vis-пїЅ-vis Tehran. If Iran was not on the path to a nuclear weapons capability you would probablynot see this sudden rush. But no one doubts that this sudden interest innuclear power has military implications.
It also marks an abrupt reversal among states whichuntil very recently had called for a nuclear-free Middle East, and for Israel to disarm. Up to 30 more countries may develop atomic weapons if theproliferation of nuclear technology is not stopped, the IAEA--the UN s nuclearwatchdog has warned. On February 6, 2007 according to the Burma Digest, Burma A Potential Nuclear State part-2theForeign Minister of Burma claimed his support of nuclear proliferation of Iran.
This is not the first time that the military regime of Burma openly mentions aboutits favor in nuclear technologies. It has announced to join the nuclear clubsince 2002. Although its claims are based on civil use and medicalresearch facilities, its actions to seek nuclear technologies and possiblenuclear weapons are more obvious by means of sending the military engineers to Russia to study nuclear science and establishing the secret nuclear plants inside Burma.
Increasing Military Strength of Russia and China And Now Joined by Middle East Countries and Even The Non-Aligned Nations. While we haveaddressed the buildup of weapons and military strength in the usuallyidentified countries, the suppliers such as China, Russia, North Korea and Iran are providing weapons to the Non-Aligned Nations. Of particular importance tothe United States is the buildup in Venezuela and Cuba. While the Iraq crisis continues, the strategy of the Grand Chess Masters--Russia the bear and China the dragon along with their pawns the Leftists, Marxists and Islamists continue todevelop and put in place their strategy for the ultimate goal of world domination.
How America manages Eurasia is critical. Eurasia is the globe s largest continent and is geopoliticallyaxial. A power that dominates Eurasia would control two of the world s three mostadvanced and economically productive regions. Ever since thecontinents started interacting politically, some 500 years ago, Eurasia hasbeen the center of world powerпїЅFor America, the chief geopolitical prize isEurasia--and America s global primacy is directly dependent on how long and eu.iq options its preponderance on the Eurasian continent is sustainedпїЅ.
A mere glance at the map alsosuggests that control over Eurasia would almost automatically entail Africa ssubordination, rendering the Western Hemisphere and Oceania geopoliticallyperipheral to the world s central continent. About 75 of the world s peoplelive in Eurasia and most of the world s physical wealth as well, both in itsenterprises and underneath its soil.
Eurasia accounts for 60 of the world sGNP and about three-fourths of the world s known energy resources. faces potential conflict in Eurasia, theMediterranean Iraq Iran, and the Horn of Africa and also in the Pacific withevents in North Korea. With the backing of Venezuela and Cuba by Iran China Russia, conflicts could also erupt in the Caribbean.
Lionel Beehner, Staff Writer Staff Writer for the Council on ForeignAffairs on November 1, 2006 wrote in the article Russia-IranArms Trade Last year, Russia surpassed the United States as thedeveloping world s leader in arms deals, according to a new report by the Congressional Research Service CRS. But Russia has increased military shipments to anti-U. states like Iran and Venezuela, not to mention potential adversaries like China, which concerns U.
policymakers far more. Experts say Iran--as well as Syria--may have transferred some of these small arms to groups like Hezbollah and Hamas. Also, Russia s arms relationship with Iran, the thinking goes, furthercomplicates efforts to impose punitive sanctions against Tehran for its allegedpursuit of nuclear weapons. Russia, in addition to control of gasshipments to Europe from Central Asia, has also signed on to supplying weaponsand security alignment with the Collective Security Treaty Organization, CSTO.
CSTO countries include Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Belarus and Armenia. CSTO has also formed a military cooperation agreementwith India. India and Russia have signed on August 20th, a far-reachingmilitary cooperation agreement. Although not officially directed againstthe U.the purpose of this agreement is understood. The two countries have agreedto focus on joint war games in services-to-services interaction, jointdevelopment of new weapons systems and training of Indian military personnelPress Trust of India, 21 August 2006.
Military-technicalcooperation between Russia and India is worth 1. 5 billion a year. The MiGCorporation is also taking part in an Indian tender to deliver 126 fighteraircraft valued at 6. See also the article in Global Politician NuclearProliferation -- Options In A Perfect Storm by David J. The contract can grow to 48 aircraft that would increase costs up to 2. 5billion dollars. Beijingplans to build three aircraft carriers by 2016 and is putting the finishingtouches with Rosoboron export for the supply of 12 more SU-33s fighters, Ria Novosti reported.
This agreement would be the second largest signed by Moscow in the field of military technical cooperation only surpassed by the authorizedassembly, under license, of SU-30MKI fighters with India. Transnational entities such as al-Qaeda, Hezbollah, Hamas, the Muslim Brotherhood, the International Solidarity Movement ISM and their related organizations are gaining strength worldwide.
The Rise and Increased Strength Transnational Entities Utilizing Political Action and Potentially Weapons of Mass Destruction. They may achieve their goal of ultimately obtaining and ultimately using WMD. In some cases they are intimately linked with the Leftist Marxist Islamist Alliance. The mode of operation is to use terrorism, threats of terrorism, political action and participation in the democratic process.
The actions are occurring worldwide as seen in the elections in Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and even in Spain. Their goal is to create a totalitarian new world order. Transnational Jihadist groups are operating worldwide. An example of such an organization is Hizb-ut-Tahrir -- Literally translated as the party of liberation. Reference Critical Mass Hiib rrt-Tahrir al-Islami and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan by Don Rassler at Columbia University December 3, 2006.
HT aims to reestablish an Islamic caliphate, which would be modeled after the unified Islamic State established by the Prophet during the seventh century. The method, the only way to reestablish the kind of Islamic society promulgated by the Prophet, al-Nabhani argued, was to liberate Muslims from the thoughts, systems, and laws of kufr nonbelievers and replace the Judeo-Christian-dominated nation-state-system with a borderless ummah community of believers ruled by a new caliph.
The party s general goal is to resume the Islamic Way of Life and convey the Islamic call to the world. Creating the Islamic kingdom of God on Earth. Founded as a more nationalistic alternative to the Muslim Brotherhood by a Palestinian judge named Sheikh Taquiddin al-Nabhani the group defines itself as a nonviolent political organization, but allegedly denounces all existing political systems. html Islamic caliphate, which would be modeled after the unified Islamic State established by the Prophet during the seventh century.
See also Caliphatism - Establishing the Islamic Kingdom of Eu.iq options on Earth by David J. Steps for the Destruction of the Existing International Order. Although authors differ about HT s approach and commitment to a gradual and nonviolent process, it is clear that HT is dedicated to a radical goal the destruction of the existing international order. In order to obtain their goal, the establishment of the caliphate and eventual Muslin rule, the leaders of HT believe they must follow three precise steps.
Secondly, through more robust recruitment and encouraging the ummah to embrace Islam the group aims to covertly infiltrate government institutions and increase their efforts to create tension between society and those in power. The third and final step is the establishment of an Islamic state based on Shuria, which would unite the Islamic world, enabling it to spark a worldwide Islamic revolution. The London website about Hizb ut-Tahrir is.
On March 19, HTB launches Iraq report-exposing myths of occupation charting new way forward for the Middle East. The report is being widely circulated amongst thinkers, academics, journalists, columnists, politicians and think tanks. The report also argues that any discussion of withdrawal from only Iraq will not serve to end the legacy of Western colonialism in the Middle East because for the long term stability of the region it is essential that foreign troops withdraw from the entire region, for their meddling has led to almost a century of tyrannical rule, brutal occupation and instability.
The report advocates the withdrawal of all foreign military personnel in Iraq and the wider region, an end to the West s support of dictatorial leaders in the region, allowing the Muslim world to decide its own political destiny without interference, freeing the region s vast energy reserves from the control of monarchies and multinationals, recognition of the illegality of the occupation of Palestine and an end to double standards over nuclear power in the region.
In the light of this report, Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain and the Muslims of Britain call for the return of the Islamic Caliphate which will end the cycle of foreign occupation, dictatorship and war which has ravaged a region that previously prospered for over a thousand years under the stability of Islamic governance. According toпїЅHeritage Foundation in the article Hizb ut-Tahrir An Emerging Threat to U.
Interests in Central Asia by Ariel Cohen, Hizb-ut-Tahrir is a totalitarian organization, akin to a disciplined Marxist-Leninist party, in which internal dissent is neither encouraged nor tolerated. A candidate member undergoes two years of indoctrination, becoming a full member only after he melts with the Party. пїЅ Members belong to compartmentalized cells and know the identities of only the others in that cell.
When a critical mass of cells is achieved, writes Cohen, according to its doctrine, Hizb may move to take over a country in preparation for the establishment of the Caliphate. According to Zeyno Baran in the article Fighting the War of Ideas from the Foreign Affairs Journal November December 2005. HT is not itself a terrorist organization, but it can usefully be thought of as a conveyor belt for terrorists. By combining fascist rhetoric, Leninist strategy, and Western sloganeering with Wahhabi theology, HT has made itself into a very real and potent threat that is extremely difficult for liberal societies to counter.
The original Columbus Free Press grew out of the anti-war movement on the campus of Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio in October 1970. It indoctrinates individuals with radical ideology, priming them for recruitment by more extreme organizations where they can take part in actual operations. Inspired by the activism against the Vietnam War and the senseless killings at Kent State, the underground paper was published for a 25-year tumultuous history 1970-1995.
Like other underground alternative publications around the country, the Free Press went through many changes through the years. It served as the voice of the students in the early 70 s, reporting on social justice issues such as sexism, racism, peace activism, corporate misdeeds, politics and the counterculture. Internal ideological struggles were compounded, for example, when police arrested four of the editors in 1971 for inciting riot.
On March 7, 2005 they published an article Senator Byrd is correct to equate Bush with Hitler. Bush now holds some 2. 2 million prisoners in the US gulag, the world s biggest prison population since the Nazis both by absolute number and by percentage of population. First, the group must build the strength of the party by cultivating individuals through recruitment, propaganda and the establishment of study groups. At least 800,000 Americans are held for victimless drug crimes, including marijuana.
Thousands die each year from torture, rape, suicide and treatable disease. The system is designed to remove from the political process and, in many cases, exterminate people of color, alternative life style and political dissidence. Is this worthy of the Nazi label. Fascism has long been clearly and simply defined as corporate control of the state, with strong totalitarian, militaristic, anti-feminist and anti-gay characteristics.
Both Mussolini s Fascists and Hitler s Nazis used acts of terror and alleged terror to grab absolute power. Ranting at Bolshevism as the GOP now does against Islam, the Nazis used the burning of the Reichstag much as the GOP has capitalized on the terror attacks of September 11. Senator Byrd s invocation of the Nazis to describe the Bush regime may be considered impolitic. But it s folly to ignore the important parallels. By all accounts American democracy is hanging by a thin thread which Bush Rove is laboring mightily to cut.
Robert Byrd is a conservative, uniquely learned man. When he equates Bush with Hitler, he speaks with great sadness and scholarship -- and must be heeded. It is important to look at some of strikingly similar with banners displayed in the March along Edgware road to US Embassy, London, on 19 August 2006. See the photographs displayed in the article HIZB UT-TAHRIR PROTEST AGAINST AMERICA moonbatmedia. com hizb_ut_tahrir_190806 Here we see the banners also proclaiming Bush is the real FascistAmerica Stop Your WarmongeringNeo-Conservatives are the New Fascistsand Stop Israel s Terrorism and Cut all ties with Israel.
The Rhetoric For Political Gain Has Global Implications. Just as the Hizb ut-Tahrir report advocates the withdrawal of all foreign military personnel in Iraq the US House of Representatives voted for the first time Friday to link funding for the Iraq war to a timeline for withdrawing combat troops by August 21, 2008, defying a veto threat from President George W. Are not these events are creating tension between society and those in power as called for in the strategy above.
On March 23, 2007 House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif said The American people have lost faith in the president s conduct of this war, The American people see the reality of the war, the president does not. It s a historic moment for our party and a historic moment for our country, If you want peace, stop funding this war, said Rep. Democratic Representative John Murtha, a passionate advocate of a US withdrawal from Iraq, said We are going to bring those troops home; we are going to start changing the direction of this great country.
Conflicts Arising Over the Control of Natural Resources Energy, Raw Materials. Dennis Kucinich, D-Ohio. The major powers will seek control at any cost. Conflicts over the control of natural resources will be a driving force in the world geopolitical events in the future. The disordered spaces in the world are where states have lost the monopoly of force needed to sustain order and the rule of law, where poverty and disease are endemic, centers of extremism, insurgency and political violence, those regions with young and mobile populations and finally in the series delineates rich concentrations of natural resources - oil, minerals and the rest.
And, yes, these troubled parts of the world are places upon which we, the inhabitants of ordered and prosperous countries depend for the raw materials to feed our economies. Unsurprisingly, the Middle East and Africa loom large. The leading players seeking the natural resources include the United States, Europe, Russia, China and India. The events will result in potential wars and at the very least destabilizing the world.
and Europe are reliant on imported energy and critical raw materials; we are living in a time of interdependence. The reliance on interdependence requires the defense of potential suppliers and most importantly the delivery systems and the transport lanes sea lanes. The cost in monetary terms is huge, but the potential in terms of life may be even greater.
The companies seeking foreign supply of new sources are major investors in the countries that are potentially the greatest threat to the West, such as Iran. These investments will result in the countries using these funds to build nuclear weapons potentially to cause a nuclear holocaust. We commonly only think in terms of oil and fuel for automobiles, but we are also importing energy in the form of the materials we commonly use such as plastics, aluminum, copper, steel and most importantly fertilizer.
Increasing the production of ethanol jeopardizes both our energy and our food supply. because of an environmental concern can be just as devastating to security as the transfer of nuclear material to a rogue nation. currently imports over 50 of their ammonia--urea used to grow our crops. Similar conditions also exist for other basic materials. The Disordered World Beyond. For 60 years the transatlantic alliance had been the pillar of European security, the bridge uniting the two great centers of Western civilization.
Four years ago this month it nearly collapsed amid the diplomatic traumas that preceded the Iraq war. Diplomats on both sides say, and many even seem to believe, that the transatlantic partnership has been brought back from the brink, and is once again playing a central role in global security. They speak of progress in transatlantic efforts to defuse Iran s nuclear program, to bring a lasting peace to Lebanon, and to move the Balkans steadily toward a lasting stability.
Last month in Seville, Spain, NATO s defense ministers met to discuss an urgent request to commit more troops and equipment to the war in Afghanistan from General Bantz Craddock. The ministers heard a sobering assessment from Gen. Craddock of the stalled progress in Afghanistan and of the probability of a spring offensive against the United States and NATO forces by the Taliban and al Qaeda. The response, according to one official present, was negative.
They don t share our view of the scale and nature of the threat that Afghanistan represents, says a U. official who was there. This, remember, is not Iraq, which many European governments opposed, but Afghanistan, the good war, the fight against the people who gave us September 11. This gulf applies not just to Afghanistan. This is the struggle that was prefigured when the NATO governments invoked for the first time in the alliance s history Article V, the collective defense clause, pledging to do what was necessary to defend their allies.
Consider European responses to the deteriorating situation in Russia. Last month Vladimir Putin marched into the very cockpit of the transatlantic alliance, the annual Munich Security Conference, and flipped a frosty Moscow finger at the assembled Europeans and Americans. He attacked the United States as a bullying unilateralist that was tearing up international law.
He denounced NATO s expansion to Russia s borders and even found time to insult the Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe, the stately body that has been aiding and promoting democratic reform in the former Soviet bloc, as a vulgar institution. But just as the Europeans in the audience were nodding in approval, the Russian president turned on them too. The carefully structured world imagined by the west s leaders after the collapse of communism has proved a mirage.
The initial reaction, even from Europeans, was hostile. But on reflection, they seemed to decide that a supportive cringe would be more appropriate. A senior German official commented that there was much in what Putin had said that would resonate in Europe. The SпїЅddeutsche Zeitung, a supposedly sober newspaper, blamed the United States for the new Cold War atmosphere, saying it had created the opportunity for Putin to set himself up as the powerful voice of the growing number of countries and peoples who are stricken by doubt in the wisdom of Western policies.
This, sadly, for all the continent s boastful claims of a new transatlantic partnership, is the true voice of modern Europe a Europe that refuses to fight a war, to which it has pledged itself, against terrorists in Afghanistan; a Europe that declines to stand up to a Russian president who condemns its efforts to spread democracy even as his KGB friends eliminate their critics in European capitals.
Whether it stands for anything is much less clear. The transatlantic partnership may be back together again. Later the German government hosted celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, the covenant that marked the birth of the institution that became the European Union. Chancellor Merkel and her 26 fellow heads of government used the occasion to launch the Berlin Declaration, a document intended to serve as the signposts for the future evolution of the E.
The final details of the declaration are still under negotiation but the outlines are clear. After the usual self-congratulatory preamble paying stirring tribute to the E. s role in preserving the peace and generating prosperity over the last 50 years, the document will address the challenges of the future. What challenges are these. Terrorism, perhaps nuclear proliferation, the spread in Europe and the Middle East of Islamist ideology.
Wrong on all counts. On its 50th birthday, the E. will commit itself to fighting global warming, the economic dislocations caused by globalization and, most courageous of all, the institutional shortcomings of the union itself. Europeans will try hard to continue believing that they can huddle in their comfortable corner against the storms.
Opinion polls show that an overwhelming majority of European voters and a growing percentage in Americas believe peace comes before all else. Nothing wrong with that -- except when the inference is that Europe s eternal role is that of the concerned bystander; and sometimes even Americans are not even overly concerned. Thoughtful policymakers have been struck, and dismayed, by apparent public indifference towards the plight of Darfur.
This last means, by the way, at least in the German view, a resurrection of the European constitution, the blueprint for a nascent federal European state that was, you may remember, roundly rejected by voters in France and the Netherlands two years ago. The Islamic radicals we are fighting know they are far less wealthy and far less advanced in technology and weaponry than the United States.
As depressing, is a visible weakening in the resolve of European governments and Americans to defeat the defeat of forces threatening to destroy Western civilization. But they believe they will prevail in this war, as they did against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, by wearing us down and breaking our will. They believe America and the West are the weak horse -- soft, irresolute, and decadent. Al-Zarqawi once said Americans are the most cowardly of God s creatures. The war against global jihadism will be long, and we will experience success and setbacks along the way.
The temptation of the West will be to grow impatient and, in the face of this long struggle, to grow weary. Some will demand a quick victory and, absent that, they will want to withdraw from the battle. But this is a war from which we cannot withdraw. As we saw on September 11th, there are no safe harbors in which to hide. Our enemies have declared war on us, and their hatreds cannot be sated. We will either defeat them, or they will come after us with the unsheathed sword.
They will discover otherwise. The west s interests as it navigates this rugged geopolitical terrain are as they have ever been to export security, prosperity and, yes, liberal democratic values beyond its frontiers. On this, moral impulse, and hard headed interests are one. As it happens, the rising powers will discover over time that they have the same stake in an ordered world. But getting from here to there will not be an easy journey.
With every passing year following the events of 9 11 the rise of Leftist Marxist-Islamist Alliance has increased global instability. By the beginning of 2006, nearly all the combustible ingredients far bigger in scale than those leading to World Wars I and II and the Gulf Wars of 1991 or 2003 were in place. All of us would prefer years of repose to years of conflict. And so it once again rests with us to do what we have done in the past it is our duty.
Constantly struggling to survive on a shoestring budget, it encountered opposition from without and within. Most small companies have plans to grow their business and increase sales and profits. Growth Strategies in Business. However, there are certain methods companies must use for implementing a growth strategy. The method a company uses to expand its business is largely contingent upon its financial situation, the competition and even government regulation.
Some common growth strategies in business include market penetration, market expansion, product expansion, diversification and acquisition. One growth strategy in business is market penetration. A small company uses a market penetration strategy when it decides to market existing products within the same market it has been using. The only way to grow using existing products and markets is to increase market share, according to small business experts.
Market share is the percent of unit and dollar sales a company holds within a certain market vs. Market Penetration Strategy. all other competitors. One way to increase market share is by lowering prices. Market Expansion or Development. For example, in markets where there is little differentiation among products, a lower price may help a company increase its share of the market. A market expansion growth strategy, often called market development, entails selling current products in a new market.
There several reasons why a company may consider a market expansion strategy. First, the competition may be such that there is no room for growth within the current market. If a business does not find new markets for its products, it cannot increase sales or profits. A small company may also use a market expansion strategy if it finds new uses for its product. For example, a small soap distributor that sells to retail stores may discover that factory workers also use its product.
Product Expansion Strategy. A small company may also expand its product line or add new features to increase its sales and profits. A product expansion growth strategy often works well when technology starts to change. When small companies employ a product expansion strategy, also known as product development, they continue selling within the existing market.
A small company may also be forced to add new products as older ones become outmoded. Growth Through Diversification. Growth strategies in business also include diversification, where a small company will sell new products to new markets. This type of strategy can be very risky. Marketing research is essential because a company will need to determine if consumers in the new market will potentially like the new products. A small company will need to plan carefully when using a diversification growth strategy.
Acquisition of Other Companies. Growth strategies in business can also includes an acquisition. In acquisition, a company purchases another company to expand its operations. An acquisition growth strategy can be risky, but not as risky as a diversification strategy. One reason is that the products and market are already established. A company must know exactly what it wants to achieve when using an acquisition strategy, mainly because of the significant investment required to implement it.
A small company may use this type of strategy to expand its product line and enter new markets. Mensa, the high IQ society, provides a forum for intellectual exchange among its members. Anyone with an IQ in the top 2 of the population can join Mensa. Welcome to Mensa, the High IQ Society. There are members in more than 100 countries around the world. What is Mensa. Discover Intelligence.
Activities include the exchange of ideas through lectures, discussions, journals, special-interest groups, and local, regional, national and international gatherings; the investigations of members opinions and attitudes; and assistance to researchers, inside and outside Mensa, in projects dealing with intelligence or Mensa. What our members say about us. I was looking for a community, new friends and an environment where I can speak faster.
And, yes, I found it. I guess I was looking for some external reinforcement. I thought I would never have the time to attend the programmes as I had two young children. Originally, I just wanted to have my IQ tested. I found a great community, interesting activities, lots of love and, eventually, a husband as well. Out of curiosity, I finally joined Mensa and I have been a member for 14 years now.
The world was a hostile territory. In order to preserve my human relationships, I had to wear a mask of courtesy. Still, under this mask, I was alone. Alone and lonely. I wanted to get rid of this mask; I was looking for an environment where people can understand me. And at the end, the people I found in Mensa tamed me they made me a better person.
I entered the community like a strange, wild animal and some members just reached out for me and took me in. I am grateful. It is an honour to be a member of Mensa. From the very first moment, my eyes have been sparkling finally, I arrived in a place where people share similar thoughts, say similar puns, have similar associations like I have. Naturally, I also see the differences different characters, attitudes and views some of these I embrace, others I reject, but this makes the world complete.
We cannot be different in the same way. I enjoy encountering many different opinions within Mensa. And yes, the daily dose of humour is addictive. Thank you all for adding colour to my days and to grey matter as well. In most cases, we manage to exchange opinions and discuss even sensitive topics without major fights My horizon definitely became broader and I have been enriched with lots of new information.
What has Mensa given me. Friends, a community, a big family, numerous fantastic programs and activities. Also, I discovered the security of receiving help for any problem I might have. Now I have friends and acquaintances across the entire country. I have always been a misfit. I took the test to see if I really do differ from the average. And then, during the first meeting with fellow Mensans, I had this sense of homecoming as if arriving from another galaxy to a place where I belong.
I met plenty of valuable people many of them I consider friends and there are lots of them I look up to. I joined the club out of curiosity. What I found was a huge playground beyond imagination. 2020 Mensa Foundation International Scholarship Winners. The Mensa Foundation is proud to announce its 2020 Mensa. Mensa Mexico has achieved Full National Status. I can report another wonderful achievement we will. MENSA BRAIN TRAINING. Download our app and challenge your brain.
Find your local mensa. 2000 - 2020 Mensa International Limited. Mensa International Limited is a company registered in England and Wales No. Honda Motor Company, Ltd. JapaneseHepburn Honda Giken Kōgyō KKIPA honda listen ; ˈ h ɒ n d ə is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment.
Honda Motor Co. Honda Giken Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha. Public Traded as TYO 7267 NYSE HMC TOPIX Core 30 Component ISIN JP3854600008 Industry Conglomerate Founded Hamamatsu, Japan October 1946 1946-10incorporated 24 September 1948 ; 71 years ago 1948-09-24 Founders. Soichiro Honda Takeo Fujisawa. Toshiaki Mikoshiba chairman Takahiro Hachigo president and CEO.
Automobiles commercial vehicles luxury vehicles motorcycles Scooters electric generators water pumps lawn and garden equipment rotary tillers outboard motors robotics jet aircraft jet engines thin-film solar cells internavi telematics. 36 trillion 2018 1. 5 billion 2018 1. 05 trillion 2018 1 Total assets 19. 34 trillion 2018 1 Total equity 8. 23 trillion 2018 1 Owners. 46 TMTBJ investment trusts 4.
JTSBinvestment trusts 6. 71 Chase BankADRs nominated by Moxley Co. 09 Meiji Yasuda Life 2. 83 Tokio Marine 2. 35 As of March 2014. 215,638 2018 1 Divisions. Acura Honda Aircraft Company Honda Automobiles Honda Motorcycles. Transportation American Honda Motor Company Acura Honda Aircraft Company Honda Performance Development Honda Automobile China Company 50 Guangqi Honda Automobile 50 Li Nian Everus Honda Seil Cars India Honda Motorcycle and Scooter India Dongfeng Honda 50 Honda Spain Montesa Air Transportation Honda Airways Sports Honda Racing F1 Honda Racing Engines GE Honda Aero Engines 50 Other Mobilityland 100 International Honda Pakistan Honda Canada Inc.
Honda Taiwan Honda UK ltd. Honda has been the world s largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, 2 3 reaching a production of 400 million by the end of 2019, 4 as well as the world s largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. 5 Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001.
6 7 Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, and other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China Honda China, Dongfeng Honda, and Guangqi Honda. In 2013, Honda invested about 5. 8 billion of its revenues in research and development. They have also ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012. 9 Also in 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357.
1 History 2 Corporate profile and divisions 3 Products 3. 1 Automobiles 3. 2 Motorcycles 3. 4 Power equipment 3. 7 Aircraft 3. 8 Mountain bikes 4 Former products 4. 1 Solar cells 5 Motorsports 5. 1 Automobiles 5. 2 Motorcycles 6 Electric and alternative fuel vehicles 6. 1 Compressed natural gas 6. 2 Flexible-fuel 6. 3 Hybrid electric 6. 4 Hydrogen fuel cell 6. 5 Plug-in electric vehicles 7 Marketing 7. 2 International marketing 7. 3 Sports 8 Facilities partial list 9 US sales 10 Production numbers 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links.
Throughout his life, Honda s founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles. 1 Japanese marketing 7. He worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he tuned cars and entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki Eastern Sea Precision Machine Company to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. 11 After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products.
11 After attending engineering school without graduating, and visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota s quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ even unskilled wartime laborers. Tōkai Seiki was placed under the control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry called the Ministry of Munitions after 1943 at the start of World War II, and Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40 stake in the company.
11 Honda also aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers. 11 The relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for 450,000 and used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946.
11 A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki s Yamashita plant in 1944, and the Itawa plant collapsed on 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m 2 170 sq ft shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
11 12 19 14 When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, and supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. 11 14 This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound the engine made. 11 In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for 1,000,000, or about US 5,000 today; these funds were used to incorporate Honda Motor Co. 12 21 At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, and Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda s technical bent.
12 21 The close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. 13 15 In 1961, Honda achieved its first Grand Prix victories and World Championships in 125cc and 250cc. 16 Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world s largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964.
The eu.iq options production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. 17 Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket. 18 The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda s motorcycle origins.
Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market. The year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990.
Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda; owing to health issues, Irimajiri would resign in 1992. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself quickly being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Kawamoto acted quickly to change Honda s corporate culture, rushing through market-driven product development that resulted in recreational vehicles such as the first-generation Odyssey and the CR-V, and a refocusing away from some of the numerous sedans and coupes that were popular with the company s engineers but not with the buying public. Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeover by Mitsubishi Motors, which at the time was a larger automaker by volume and was flush with profits from its successful Pajero and Diamante models.
The most shocking change to Honda came when Kawamoto ended the company s successful participation in Formula One after the 1992 season, citing costs in light of the takeover threat from Mitsubishi as well as the desire to create a more environmentally friendly company image. The Honda Aircraft Company as established in 2006 as a wholly owned subsidiary to manufacture and sell the HondaJet family of aircraft.
On 23 February 2015, Honda announced that CEO and President Takanobu Ito would step down and be replaced by Takahiro Hachigo by June; additional retirements by senior managers and directors were expected. 23 24 The first deliveries to customers began in December 2015. In October 2019, Honda was reported to be in talks with Hitachi to merge the two companies car parts businesses, creating a components supplier with almost 17 billion in annual sales.
In January 2020, Honda announced that it would be withdrawing employees working in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 28 Due to the global spread of the virus, Honda became the first major automaker with operations in the US to suspend production in its factories on March 23, 2020.
It resumed automobile, engine and transmission production at its US plants on May 11, 2020. Honda and General Motors announced in September 2020 a North American alliance to begin in 2021. 30 According to The Detroit Free Press, The proposed alliance will include sharing a range of vehicles, to be sold under each company s distinct brands, as well as cooperation in purchasing, research and development, and connected services.
Their shares trade on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange, as well as exchanges in Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kyoto, Fukuoka, London, Paris, and Switzerland. Honda is headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. The company has assembly plants around the globe. These plants are located in China, the United States, Pakistan, Canada, England, Japan, Belgium, Brazil, México, New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey, Taiwan, Perú and Argentina.
2 percent a year earlier. As of July 2010, 89 percent of Honda and Acura vehicles sold in the United States were built in North American plants, up from 82. This shields profits from the yen s advance to a 15-year high against the dollar. American Honda Motor Company is based in Torrance, California. Honda Racing Corporation HRC is Honda s motorcycle racing division. Honda Canada Inc. is headquartered in Markham, Ontario, 33 it was originally planned to be located in Richmond Hill, Ontario, but delays led them to look elsewhere.
Their manufacturing division, Honda of Canada Manufacturing, is based in Alliston, Ontario. Honda has also created joint ventures around the world, such as Honda Siel Cars and Hero Honda Motorcycles in India, 34 Guangzhou Honda and Dongfeng Honda in China, Boon Siew Honda in Malaysia and Honda Atlas in Pakistan. The company also runs a business innovation initiative called Honda Xceleratorin order to build relationships with innovators, partner with Silicon Valley startups and entrepreneurs, and help other companies work on prototypes.
Xcelerator had worked with reportedly 40 companies as of January 2019. Xcelerator and a developer studio are part of the Honda Innovations group, formed in Spring 2017 and based in Mountain View, California. Following the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, Honda announced plans to halve production at its UK plants. 36 The decision was made to put staff at the Swindon plant on a 2-day week until the end of May as the manufacturer struggled to source supplies from Japan.
It s thought around 22,500 cars were produced during this period. For the fiscal year 2018, Honda reported earnings of US 9. 534 billion, with an annual revenue of US 138. 250 billion, an increase of 6. 2 over the previous fiscal cycle. Honda s shares traded at over 32 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at US 50. Year Revenue in mil. 4 billion in October 2018. US Net income in mil. US Total assets in mil. Honda s Net Sales and Other Operating Revenue by Geographical Regions in 2007 38.
US Employees 2005 77,851 4,376 83,853 2006 89,172 5,373 95,145 2007 99,784 5,331 108,329 2008 108,026 5,400 113,540 2009 100,112 1,370 118,189 2010 92,655 3,052 125,594 2011 107,242 6,762 138,851 2012 100,941 2,820 149,616 2013 119,523 4,443 164,988 190,338 2014 118,425 5,741 156,220 198,561 2015 121,286 4,636 167,675 204,730 2016 121,190 2,860 151,303 208,399 2017 130,193 5,734 176,311 211,915 2018 138,250 9,534 174,143 215,638.
Geographic Region Total revenue in millions of Japan 1,681,190 North America 5,980,876 Europe 1,236,757 Asia 1,283,154 Others 905,163. Honda s automotive manufacturing ambitions can be traced back to 1963, with the Honda T360, a kei car truck built for the Japanese market. 39 This was followed by the two-door roadster, the Honda S500 also introduced in 1963. In 1965, Honda built a two-door commercial delivery van, called the Honda L700.
Honda s first four-door sedan was not the Accord, but the air-cooled, four-cylinder, gasoline-powered Honda 1300 in 1969. That was the Honda N360, another Kei car that was adapted for international sale as the N600. The Civic was a hatchback that gained wide popularity internationally, but it wasn t the first two-door hatchback built. The Civic, which appeared in 1972 and replaced the N600 also had a smaller sibling that replaced the air-cooled N360, called the Honda Life that was water-cooled.
The Honda Life represented Honda s efforts in competing in the kei car segment, offering sedan, delivery van and small pick-up platforms on a shared chassis. The Life StepVan had a novel approach that, while not initially a commercial success, appears to be an influence in vehicles with the front passengers sitting behind the engine, a large cargo area with a flat roof and a liftgate installed in back, and utilizing a transversely installed engine with a front-wheel-drive powertrain.
As Honda entered into automobile manufacturing in the late 1960s, where Japanese manufacturers such as Toyota and Nissan had been making cars since before WWII, it appears that Honda instilled a sense of doing things a little differently than its Japanese competitors. Its mainstay products, like the Accord and Civic with the exception of its USA-market 1993 97 Passport which was part of a vehicle exchange program with Isuzu part of the Subaru-Isuzu joint venturehave always employed front-wheel-drive powertrain implementation, which is currently a long-held Honda tradition.
Honda also installed new technologies into their products, first as optional equipment, then later standard, like anti lock brakes, speed sensitive power steering, and multi-port fuel injection in the early 1980s. This desire to be the first to try new approaches is evident with the creation of the first Japanese luxury chain Acura, and was also evident with the all aluminum, mid-engined sports car, the Honda NSX, which also introduced variable valve timing technology, Honda calls VTEC. The Civic is a line of compact cars developed and manufactured by Honda.
In North America, the Civic is the second-longest continuously running nameplate from a Japanese manufacturer; only its perennial rival, the Toyota Corolla, introduced in 1968, has been in production longer. 40 The Civic, along with the Accord and Prelude, comprised Honda s vehicles sold in North America until the 1990s when the model lineup was expanded. Having gone through several generational changes, the Civic has become larger and more upmarket, and it currently slots between the Fit and Accord.
Honda produces Civic hybrid, a hybrid electric vehicle that competes with the Toyota Prius, and also produces the Insight and CR-Z. In 2008, Honda increased global production to meet the demand for small cars and hybrids in the U. and emerging markets. The company shuffled U. production to keep factories busy and boost car output while building fewer minivans and sport utility vehicles as light truck sales fell. Its first entrance into the pickup segment, the light-duty Ridgeline, won Truck of the Year from Motor Trend magazine in 2006.
Also in 2006, the redesigned Civic won Car of the Year from the magazine, giving Honda a rare double win of Motor Trend honors. It is reported that Honda plans to increase hybrid sales in Japan to more than 20 of its total sales in the fiscal year 2011, from 14. 8 in the previous year. Five of United States Environmental Protection Agency s top ten most fuel-efficient cars from 1984 to 2010 comes from Honda, more than any other automakers.
The five models are 2000 2006 Honda Insight 53 mpg US or 4. 4 L 100 km or 64 mpg imp combined1986 1987 Honda Civic Coupe HF 46 mpg US or 5. 1 L 100 km or 55 mpg imp combined1994 1995 Honda Civic hatchback VX 43 mpg US or 5. 5 L 100 km or 52 mpg imp combined2006 Honda Civic Hybrid 42 mpg US or 5. 6 L 100 km or 50 mpg imp combinedand 2010 Honda Insight 41 mpg US or 5. 7 L 100 km or 49 mpg imp combined.
43 The ACEEE has also rated the Civic GX as the greenest car in America for seven consecutive years. Honda currently builds vehicles in factories located in Japan, the United States of America, Canada, China, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Brazil, Indonesia, India, Thailand, Turkey, Argentina, Mexico, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Honda is the largest motorcycle manufacturer in Japan and has been since it started production in 1955.
11 At its peak in 1982, Honda manufactured almost three million motorcycles annually. By 2006 this figure had reduced to around 550,000 but was still higher than its three domestic competitors. In 2017, India became the largest motorcycle market of Honda. 45 In India, Honda is leading in the scooters segment, with 59 percent market share. During the 1960s, when it was a small manufacturer, Honda broke out of the Japanese motorcycle market and began exporting to the U.
Working with the advertising agency Grey Advertising, Honda created an innovative marketing campaign, using the slogan You meet the nicest people on a Honda. In contrast to the prevailing negative stereotypes of motorcyclists in America as tough, antisocial rebels, this campaign suggested that Honda motorcycles were made for the everyman. The campaign was hugely successful; the ads ran for three years, and by the end of 1963 alone, Honda had sold 90,000 motorcycles.
and around the world has been the subject of some academic controversy. Taking Honda s story as an archetype of the smaller manufacturer entering a new market already occupied by highly dominant competitors, the story of their market entry, and their subsequent huge success in the U. Competing explanations have been advanced to explain Honda s strategy and the reasons for their success.
The first of these explanations was put forward when, in 1975, Boston Consulting Group BCG was commissioned by the UK government to write a report explaining why and how the British motorcycle industry had been out-competed by its Japanese competitors. The report concluded that the Japanese firms, including Honda, had sought a very high scale of production they had made a large number of motorbikes in order to benefit from economies of scale and learning curve effects.
It blamed the decline of the British motorcycle industry on the failure of British managers to invest enough in their businesses to profit from economies of scale and scope. The second explanation was offered in 1984 by Richard Pascale, who had interviewed the Honda executives responsible for the firm s entry into the U. As opposed to the tightly focused strategy of low cost and high scale that BCG accredited to Honda, Pascale found that their entry into the U. market was a story of miscalculation, serendipity, and organizational learning in other words, Honda s success was due to the adaptability and hard work of its staff, rather than any long-term strategy.
49 For example, Honda s initial plan on entering the US was to compete in large motorcycles, around 300 cc. Honda s motorcycles in this class suffered performance and reliability problems when ridden the relatively long distances of the US highways. 12 41 43 When the team found that the scooters they were using to get themselves around their U. base of San Francisco attracted positive interest from consumers that they fell back on selling the Super Cub instead.
The most recent school of thought on Honda s strategy was put forward by Gary Hamel and C. Prahalad in 1989. Creating the concept of core competencies with Honda as an example, they argued that Honda s success was due to its focus on leadership in the technology of internal combustion engines. Honda s entry into the U. motorcycle market during the 1960s is used as a case study for teaching introductory strategy at business schools worldwide.
Honda builds utility ATVs under models Recon, Rubicon, Rancher, Foreman and Rincon. 50 For example, the high power-to-weight ratio engines Honda produced for its racing bikes provided technology and expertise which was transferable into mopeds. Honda also builds sports ATVs under the models TRX 90X, TRX 250X, TRX 400x, TRX 450R and TRX 700. Power equipment. Production started in 1953 with H-type engine prior to motorcycle. Honda power equipment reached record sales in 2007 with 6.
4 million units. 54 By 2010 Fiscal year ended 31 March this figure had decreased to 4,7 million units. 55 Cumulative production of power products has exceeded 85 million units as of September 2008. Honda power equipment includes. Engine Cultivator Lawn mower Robotic lawn mower Riding mower Trimmer Mower Blower Sprayer Hedge trimmer Snowthrower Generator, welding power supply Pump Outboard engine Inflatable boat Electric 4-wheel Scooter Compact Household Cogeneration Unit. Honda engines powered the entire 33-car starting field of the 2010 Indianapolis 500 57 and for the fifth consecutive race, there were no engine-related retirements during the running of the Memorial Day Classic.
In the 1980s Honda developed the GY6 engine for use in motor scooters. Although no longer manufactured by Honda it is still commonly used in many Chinese, Korean and Taiwanese light vehicles. Honda, despite being known as an engine company, has never built a V8 for passenger vehicles. In the late 1990s, the company resisted considerable pressure from its American dealers for a V8 engine which would have seen use in top-of-the-line Honda SUVs and Acuraswith American Honda reportedly sending one dealer a shipment of V8 beverages to silence them.
60 Honda considered starting V8 production in the mid-2000s for larger Acura sedans, a new version of the high-end NSX sports car which previously used DOHC V6 engines with VTEC to achieve its high power output and possible future ventures into the American full-size truck and SUV segment for both the Acura and Honda brands, but this was canceled in late 2008, with Honda citing environmental and worldwide economic conditions as reasons for the termination of this project.
ASIMO is the part of Honda s Research Development robotics program. It is the eleventh in a line of successive builds starting in 1986 with Honda E0 moving through the ensuing Honda E series and the Honda P series. Weighing 54 kilograms and standing 130 centimeters tall, ASIMO resembles a small astronaut wearing a backpack, and can walk on two feet in a manner resembling human locomotion, at up to 6 km h 3.
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