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Who believe software is more important than hardware. 31 citation needed. A 2017 email survey of authors with publications at the 2015 NeurIPS and ICML machine learning conferences asked about the chance of an intelligence explosion. Of the respondents, 12 said it was quite likely17 said it was likely21 said it was about even24 said it was unlikely and 26 said it was quite unlikely. Speed improvements Edit.

Both for human and artificial intelligence, hardware improvements increase the rate of future hardware improvements. Simply put, 33 Moore s Law suggests that if the first doubling of speed took 18 months, the second would take 18 subjective months; or 9 external months, whereafter, four months, two months, and so on towards a speed singularity.

34 An upper limit on speed may eventually be reached, although it is unclear how high this would be. Jeff Hawkins has stated that a self-improving computer system would inevitably run into upper limits on computing power in the end there are limits to how big and fast computers can run. We would end up in the same place; we d just get there a bit faster. There would be no singularity. It is difficult to directly compare silicon-based hardware with neurons.

But Berglas 2008 notes that computer speech recognition is approaching human capabilities, and that this capability seems to require 0. This analogy suggests that modern computer hardware is within a few orders of magnitude of being as powerful as the human brain. 01 of the volume of the brain. Exponential growth Edit. The exponential growth in computing technology suggested by Moore s law is commonly cited as a reason to expect a singularity in the relatively near future, and a number of authors have proposed generalizations of Moore s law.

Computer scientist and futurist Hans Moravec proposed in a 1998 book 36 that the exponential growth curve could be extended back through earlier computing technologies prior to the integrated circuit. Ray Kurzweil postulates a law of accelerating returns in which the speed of technological change and more generally, all evolutionary processes 37 increases exponentially, generalizing Moore s law in the same manner as Moravec s proposal, and also including material technology especially as applied to nanotechnologymedical technology and others.

Kurzweil reserves the term singularity for a rapid increase in artificial intelligence as opposed to other technologieswriting for example that The Singularity will allow us to transcend these limitations of our biological bodies and brains. 38 Between 1986 and 2007, machines application-specific capacity to compute information per capita roughly doubled every 14 months; the per capita capacity of the world s general-purpose computers has doubled every 18 months; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; and the world s storage capacity per capita doubled every 40 months.

There will be no distinction, post-Singularity, between human and machine. 40 He also defines his predicted date of the singularity 2045 in terms of when he expects computer-based intelligences to significantly exceed the sum total of human brainpower, writing that advances in computing before that date will not represent the Singularity because they do not yet correspond to a profound expansion of our intelligence. Accelerating change Edit.

Some singularity proponents argue its inevitability through extrapolation of past trends, especially those pertaining to shortening gaps between improvements to technology. In one of the first uses of the term singularity in the context of technological progress, Stanislaw Ulam tells of a conversation with John von Neumann about accelerating change. One conversation centered on the ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.

Kurzweil claims that technological progress follows a pattern of exponential growth, following what he calls the law of accelerating returns. Whenever technology approaches a barrier, Kurzweil writes, new technologies will surmount it. He predicts paradigm shifts will become increasingly common, leading to technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history.

42 Kurzweil believes that the singularity will occur by approximately 2045. 43 His predictions differ from Vinge s in that he predicts a gradual ascent to the singularity, rather than Vinge s rapidly self-improving superhuman intelligence. Oft-cited dangers include those commonly associated with molecular nanotechnology and genetic engineering. These threats are major issues for both singularity advocates and critics, and were the subject of Bill Joy s Wired magazine article Why the future doesn t need us.

Algorithm improvements Edit. Some intelligence technologies, like seed AI14 15 may also have the potential to not just make themselves faster, but also more efficient, by modifying their source code. These improvements would make further improvements possible, which would make further improvements possible, and so on. The mechanism for a recursively self-improving set of algorithms differs from an increase in raw computation speed in two ways. First, it does not require external influence machines designing faster hardware would still require humans to create the improved hardware, or to program factories appropriately.

citation needed An AI rewriting its own source code could do so while contained in an AI box. Second, as with Vernor Vinge s conception of the singularity, it is much harder to predict the outcome. While speed increases seem to be only a quantitative difference from human intelligence, actual algorithm improvements would be qualitatively different. Eliezer Yudkowsky compares it to the changes that human intelligence brought humans changed the world thousands of times more rapidly than evolution had done, and in totally different ways.

Similarly, the evolution of life was a massive departure and acceleration from the previous geological rates of change, and improved intelligence could cause change to be as different again. There are substantial dangers associated with an intelligence explosion singularity originating from a recursively self-improving set of algorithms. First, the goal structure of the AI might not be invariant under self-improvement, potentially causing the AI to optimise for something other than what was originally intended.

46 47 Secondly, AIs could compete for the same scarce resources mankind uses to survive. Carl Shulman and Anders Sandberg suggest that algorithm improvements may be the limiting factor for a singularity; while hardware efficiency tends to improve at a steady pace, software innovations are more unpredictable and may be bottlenecked by serial, cumulative research.

While not actively malicious, there is no reason to think that AIs would actively promote human goals unless they could be programmed as such, and if not, might use the resources currently used to support mankind to promote its own goals, causing human extinction. They suggest that in the case of a software-limited singularity, intelligence explosion would actually become more likely than with a hardware-limited singularity, because in the software-limited case, once human-level AI is developed, it could run serially on very fast hardware, and the abundance of cheap hardware would make AI research less constrained.

53 An abundance of accumulated hardware that can be unleashed once the software figures out how to use it has been called computing overhang. Criticisms Edit. Some critics, like philosopher Hubert Dreyfus, assert that computers or machines cannot achieve human intelligence, while others, like physicist Stephen Hawking, hold that the definition of intelligence is irrelevant if the net result is the same. Psychologist Steven Pinker stated in 2008. There is not the slightest reason to believe in a coming singularity.

The fact that you can visualize a future in your imagination is not evidence that it is likely or even possible. Look at domed cities, jet-pack commuting, underwater cities, mile-high buildings, and nuclear-powered automobiles all staples of futuristic fantasies when I was a child that have never arrived. Sheer processing power is not a pixie dust that magically solves all your problems.

Computers have, literally. no intelligence, no motivation, no autonomy, and no agency. We design them to behave as if they had certain sorts of psychology, but there is no psychological reality to the corresponding processes or behavior. T he machinery has no beliefs, desires, or motivations. Martin Ford in The Lights in the Tunnel Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future 57 postulates a technology paradox in that before the singularity could occur most routine jobs in the economy would be automated, since this would require a level of technology inferior to that of the singularity.

Job displacement is increasingly no longer limited to work traditionally considered to be routine. This would cause massive unemployment and plummeting consumer demand, which in turn would destroy the incentive to invest in the technologies that would be required to bring about the Singularity. Evidence for this decline is that the rise in computer clock rates is slowing, even while Moore s prediction of exponentially increasing circuit density continues to hold.

This is due to excessive heat build-up from the chip, which cannot be dissipated quickly enough to prevent the chip from melting when operating at estrategia iq option 90 speeds. Advances in speed may be possible in the future by virtue of more power-efficient CPU designs and multi-cell processors. Theodore Modis 59 60 and Jonathan Huebner 61 argue that the rate of technological innovation has not only ceased to rise, but is actually now declining.

62 While Kurzweil used Modis resources, and Modis work was around accelerating change, Modis distanced himself from Kurzweil s thesis of a technological singularityclaiming that it lacks scientific rigor. In a detailed empirical accounting, The Progress of ComputingWilliam Nordhaus argued that, prior to 1940, computers followed the much slower growth of a traditional industrial economy, thus rejecting extrapolations of Moore s law to 19th-century computers.

In a 2007 paper, Schmidhuber stated that the frequency of subjectively notable events appears to be approaching a 21st-century singularity, but cautioned readers to take such plots of subjective events with a grain of salt perhaps differences in memory of recent and distant events could create an illusion of accelerating change where none exists. A study of the number of patents shows that human creativity does not show accelerating returns, but in fact, as suggested by Joseph Tainter in his The Collapse of Complex Societies65 a law of diminishing returns.

The number of patents per thousand peaked in the period from 1850 to 1900, and has been declining since. Paul Allen argued the opposite of accelerating returns, the complexity brake; 26 the more progress science makes towards understanding intelligence, the more difficult it becomes to make additional progress. Jaron Lanier refutes the idea that the Singularity is inevitable.

61 The growth of complexity eventually becomes self-limiting, and leads to a widespread general systems collapse. He states I do estrategia iq option 90 think the technology is creating itself. It s not an autonomous process. 66 He goes on to assert The reason to believe in human agency over technological determinism is that you can then have an economy where people earn their own way and invent their own lives. If you structure a society on not emphasizing individual human agency, it s the same thing operationally as denying people clout, dignity, and self-determination.

to embrace the idea of the Singularity would be a celebration of bad data and bad politics. Economist Robert J. Gordon, in The Rise and Fall of American Growth The U. Standard of Living Since the Civil War 2016points out that measured economic growth has slowed around 1970 and slowed even further since the financial crisis of 2007 2008, and argues that the economic data show no trace of a coming Singularity as imagined by mathematician I.

In addition to general criticisms of the singularity concept, several critics have raised issues with Kurzweil s iconic chart. One line of criticism is that a log-log chart of this nature is inherently biased toward a straight-line result. Others identify selection bias in the points that Kurzweil chooses to use.

For example, biologist PZ Myers points out that many of the early evolutionary events were picked arbitrarily. 68 Kurzweil has rebutted this by charting evolutionary events from 15 neutral sources, and showing that they fit a straight line on a log-log chart. The Economist mocked the concept with a graph extrapolating that the number of blades on a razor, which has increased over the years from one to as many as five, will increase ever-faster to infinity.

Dramatic changes in the rate of economic growth have occurred in the past because of some technological advancement. Based on population growth, the economy doubled every 250,000 years from the Paleolithic era until the Neolithic Revolution. In the current era, beginning with the Industrial Revolution, the world s economic output doubles every fifteen years, sixty times faster than during the agricultural era.

If the rise of superhuman intelligence causes a similar revolution, argues Robin Hanson, one would expect the economy to double at least quarterly and possibly on a weekly basis. The new agricultural economy doubled every 900 years, a remarkable increase. Uncertainty and risk Edit. The term technological singularity reflects the idea that such change may happen suddenly, and that it is difficult to predict how the resulting new world would operate. 71 72 It is unclear whether an intelligence explosion resulting in a singularity would be beneficial or harmful, or even an existential threat.

73 74 Because AI is a major factor in singularity risk, a number of organizations pursue a technical theory of aligning AI goal-systems with human values, including the Future of Humanity Institute, the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, 71 the Center for Human-Compatible Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of Life Institute.

Physicist Stephen Hawking said in 2014 that Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. 75 Hawking believed that in the coming decades, AI could offer incalculable benefits and risks such as technology outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders, and developing weapons we cannot even understand.

75 Hawking suggested that artificial intelligence should be taken more seriously and that more should be done to prepare for the singularity 75. So, facing possible futures of incalculable benefits and risks, the experts are surely doing everything possible to ensure the best outcome, right. If a superior alien civilisation sent us a message saying, We ll arrive in a few decades, would we just reply, OK, call us when you get here we ll leave the lights on.

Evolution has no inherent tendency to produce outcomes valued by humans, and there is little reason to expect an arbitrary optimisation process to promote an outcome desired by mankind, rather than inadvertently leading to an AI behaving in a way not intended by its creators. 76 77 78 Anders Sandberg has also elaborated on this scenario, addressing various common counter-arguments.

Probably not but this is more or less what is happening with AI. Berglas 2008 claims that there is no direct evolutionary motivation for an AI to be friendly to humans. 79 AI researcher Hugo de Garis suggests that artificial intelligences may simply eliminate the human race for access to scarce resources, 48 80 and humans would be powerless to stop them. 81 Alternatively, AIs developed under evolutionary pressure to promote their own survival could outcompete humanity. Bostrom 2002 discusses human extinction scenarios, and lists superintelligence as a possible cause.

When we create the first superintelligent entity, we might make a mistake and give it goals that lead it to annihilate humankind, assuming its enormous intellectual advantage gives it the power to do so. For example, we could mistakenly elevate a subgoal to the status of a supergoal. We tell it to solve a mathematical problem, and it complies by turning all the matter in the solar system into a giant calculating device, in the process killing the person who asked the question.

According to Eliezer Yudkowsky, a significant problem in AI safety is that unfriendly artificial intelligence is likely to be much easier to create than friendly AI. While both require large advances in recursive optimisation process design, friendly AI also requires the ability to make goal structures invariant under self-improvement or the AI could transform itself into something unfriendly and a goal structure that aligns with human values and does not automatically destroy the human race.

An unfriendly AI, on the other hand, can optimize for an arbitrary goal structure, which does not need to be invariant under self-modification. 82 Bill Hibbard 2014 harvtxt error no target CITEREFBill_Hibbard2014 help estrategia iq option 90 an AI design that avoids several dangers including self-delusion, 83 unintended instrumental actions, 46 84 and corruption of the reward generator. 84 He also discusses social impacts of AI 85 and testing AI.

86 His 2001 book Super-Intelligent Machines advocates the need for public education about AI and public control over AI. It also proposed a simple design that was vulnerable to corruption of the reward generator. Next step of sociobiological evolution Edit. While the technological singularity is usually seen as a sudden event, some scholars argue the current speed of change already fits this description. In addition, some argue that we are already in the midst of a major evolutionary transition that merges technology, biology, and society.

Digital technology has infiltrated the fabric of human society to a degree of indisputable and often life-sustaining dependence. A 2016 article in Trends in Ecology Evolution argues that humans already embrace fusions of biology and technology. We spend most of our waking time communicating through digitally mediated channels. we trust artificial intelligence with our lives through antilock braking in cars and autopilots in planes. With one in three marriages in America beginning online, digital algorithms are also taking a role in human pair bonding and reproduction.

The article further argues that from the perspective of the evolution, several previous Major Transitions in Evolution have transformed life through innovations in information storage and replication RNA, DNA, multicellularity, and culture and language. In the current stage of life s evolution, the carbon-based biosphere has generated a cognitive system humans capable of creating technology that will result in a comparable evolutionary transition.

5 years, reaching about 5 zettabytes in 2014 5 10 21 bytes. The digital information created by humans has reached a similar magnitude to biological information in the biosphere. Since the 1980s, the quantity of digital information stored has doubled about every 2. 2 billion nucleotides. In biological terms, there are 7. Since one byte can encode four nucleotide pairs, the individual genomes of every human on the planet could be encoded by approximately 1 10 19 bytes.

The digital realm stored 500 times more information than this in 2014 see figure. The total amount of DNA contained in all of the cells on Earth is estimated to be about 5. 3 10 37 base pairs, equivalent to 1. 325 10 37 bytes of information. 2 billion humans on the planet, each having a genome of 6. If growth in digital storage continues at its current rate of 30 38 compound annual growth per year, 39 it will rival the total information content contained in all of the DNA in all of the cells on Earth in about 110 years.

In February 2009, under the auspices of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence AAAIEric Horvitz chaired a meeting of leading computer scientists, artificial intelligence researchers and roboticists at Asilomar in Pacific Grove, California. The goal was to discuss the potential impact of the hypothetical possibility that robots could become self-sufficient and able to make their own decisions. This would represent a doubling of the amount of information stored in the biosphere across a total time period of just 150 years.

Implications for human society Edit. They discussed the extent to which computers and robots might be able to acquire autonomy, and to what degree they could use such abilities to pose threats or hazards. Some machines are programmed with various forms of semi-autonomy, including the ability to locate their own power sources and choose targets to attack with weapons. Also, some computer viruses can evade elimination and, according to scientists in attendance, could therefore be said to have reached a cockroach stage of machine intelligence.

The conference attendees noted that self-awareness as depicted in science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that other potential hazards and pitfalls exist. Robinson predicts that once humans achieve a machine with the intelligence of a human, scientific and technological problems will be tackled and solved with brainpower far superior to that of humans. He notes that artificial systems are able to share data more directly than humans, and predicts that this would result in a global network of super-intelligence that would dwarf human capability.

89 Robinson also discusses how vastly different the future would potentially look after such an intelligence explosion. One example of this is solar energy, where the Earth receives vastly more solar energy than humanity captures, so capturing more of that solar energy would hold vast promise for civilizational growth. In a hard takeoff scenario, an AGI rapidly self-improves, taking control of the world perhaps in a matter of hourstoo quickly for significant human-initiated error correction or for a gradual tuning of the AGI s goals.

In a soft takeoff scenario, AGI still becomes far more powerful than humanity, but at a human-like pace perhaps on the order of decadeson a timescale where ongoing human interaction and correction can effectively steer the AGI s development. Ramez Naam argues against a hard takeoff by pointing out that we already see recursive self-improvement by superintelligences, such as corporations.

For instance, Intel has the collective brainpower of tens of thousands of humans and probably millions of CPU cores to. design better CPUs. However, this has not led to a hard takeoff; rather, it has led to a soft takeoff in the form of Moore s law. 93 Naam further points out that the computational complexity of higher intelligence may be much greater than linear, such that creating a mind of intelligence 2 is probably more than twice as hard as creating a mind of intelligence 1.

Ben Goertzel agrees with Hall s suggestion that a new human-level AI would do well to use its intelligence to accumulate wealth. The AI s talents might inspire companies and governments to disperse its software throughout society. Hall suggests that rather than recursively self-improving its hardware, software, and infrastructure all on its own, a fledgling AI would be better off specializing in one area where it was most effective and then buying the remaining components on the marketplace, because the quality of products on the marketplace continually improves, and the AI would have a hard time keeping up with the cutting-edge technology used by the rest of the world.

Goertzel is skeptical of a very hard, 5-minute takeoff but thinks a takeoff from human to superhuman level on the order of 5 years is reasonable. He calls this a semihard takeoff. Max More disagrees, arguing that if there were only a few superfast human-level AIs, they wouldn t radically change the world, because they would still depend on other people to get things done and would still have human cognitive constraints. More also argues that a superintelligence would not transform the world overnight, because a superintelligence would need to engage with existing, slow human systems to accomplish physical impacts on the world.

The need for collaboration, for organization, and for putting ideas into physical changes will ensure that all the old rules are not thrown out overnight or even within years. Even if all superfast AIs worked on intelligence augmentation, it s not clear why they would do better in a discontinuous way than existing human cognitive scientists at producing super-human intelligence, although the rate of progress would increase.

In his 2005 book, The Singularity is NearKurzweil suggests that medical advances would allow people to protect their bodies from the effects of aging, making the life expectancy limitless. Storrs Hall believes that many of the more commonly seen scenarios for overnight hard takeoff are circular they seem to assume hyperhuman capabilities at the starting point of the self-improvement process in order for an AI to be able to make the dramatic, domain-general improvements required for takeoff.

Kurzweil argues that the technological advances in medicine would allow us to continuously repair and replace defective components in our bodies, prolonging life to an undetermined age. 98 Kurzweil further buttresses his argument by discussing current bio-engineering advances. Kurzweil suggests somatic gene therapy; after synthetic viruses with specific genetic information, the next step would be to apply this technology to gene therapy, replacing human DNA with synthesized genes. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair devices, including ones operating within cells and utilizing as yet hypothetical biological machines, in his 1986 book Engines of Creation.

According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him circa 1959 the idea of a medical use for Feynman s theoretical micromachines. Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to as Feynman put it swallow the doctor. The idea was incorporated into Feynman s 1959 essay There s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.

Beyond merely extending the operational life of the physical body, Jaron Lanier argues for a form of immortality called Digital Ascension that involves people dying in the flesh and being uploaded into a computer and remaining conscious. A paper by Mahendra Prasad, published in AI Magazineasserts that the 18th-century mathematician Marquis de Condorcet was the first person to hypothesize and mathematically model an intelligence explosion and its effects on humanity.

An early description of the idea was made in John Wood Campbell Jr. s 1932 short story The last evolution. In his 1958 obituary for John von Neumann, Ulam recalled a conversation with von Neumann about the ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.

In 1965, Good wrote his essay postulating an intelligence explosion of recursive self-improvement of a machine intelligence. In 1981, Stanisław Lem published his science fiction novel Golem XIV. It describes a military AI computer Golem XIV who obtains consciousness and starts to increase his own intelligence, moving towards personal technological singularity.

Golem XIV was originally created to aid its builders in fighting wars, but as its intelligence advances to a much higher level than that of humans, it stops being interested in the military requirement because it finds them lacking internal logical consistency. In 1983, Vernor Vinge greatly popularized Good s intelligence explosion in a number of writings, first addressing the topic in print in the January 1983 issue of Omni magazine.

We will soon create intelligences greater than our own. When this happens, human history will have reached a kind of singularity, an intellectual transition as impenetrable as the knotted space-time at the center of a black hole, and the world will pass far beyond our understanding. In this op-ed piece, Vinge seems to have been the first to use the term singularity in a way that was specifically tied to the creation of intelligent machines 103 104. This singularity, I believe, already haunts a number of science-fiction writers.

It makes realistic extrapolation to an interstellar future impossible. To write a story set more than a century hence, one needs a nuclear war in between. so that the world remains intelligible. In 1985, in The Time Scale of Artificial Intelligenceartificial intelligence researcher Ray Solomonoff articulated mathematically the related notion of what he called an infinity point if a research community of human-level self-improving AIs take four years to double their own speed, then two years, then one year and so on, their capabilities increase infinitely in finite time.

Vinge s 1993 article The Coming Technological Singularity How to Survive in the Post-Human Era7 spread widely on the internet and helped to popularize the idea. 106 This article contains the statement, Within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly after, the human era will be ended. Vinge argues that science-fiction authors cannot write realistic post-singularity characters who surpass the human intellect, as the thoughts of such an intellect would be beyond the ability of humans to express.

In 2000, Bill Joy, a prominent technologist and a co-founder of Sun Microsystems, voiced concern over the potential dangers of the singularity. Kurzweil s publicity campaign included an appearance on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. In 2005, Kurzweil published The Singularity is Near. In 2007, Eliezer Yudkowsky suggested that many of the varied definitions that have been assigned to singularity are mutually incompatible rather than mutually supporting.

In 2009, Kurzweil and X-Prize founder Peter Diamandis announced the establishment of Singularity University, a nonaccredited private institute whose stated mission is to educate, inspire and empower leaders to apply exponential technologies to address humanity s grand challenges. Good s proposed discontinuous upswing in intelligence and Vinge s thesis on unpredictability. 109 Funded by Google, Autodesk, ePlanet Ventures, and a group of technology industry leaders, Singularity University is based at NASA s Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California.

The not-for-profit organization runs an annual ten-week graduate program during summer that covers ten different technology and allied tracks, and a series of executive programs throughout the year. 19 108 For example, Kurzweil extrapolates current technological trajectories past the arrival of self-improving AI or superhuman intelligence, which Yudkowsky argues represents a tension with both I. It predicts significant technological and political changes in the mid-term future, including possible technological singularity.

Former President of the United States Barack Obama spoke about singularity in his interview to Wired in 2016 113. One thing that we haven t talked about too much, and I just want to go back to, is we really have to think through the economic implications. Because most people aren t spending a lot of time right now worrying about singularity they are worrying about Well, is my job going to be replaced by a machine. In 2007, the Joint Economic Committee of the United States Congress released a report about the future of nanotechnology.

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Your Membership Will Activate Maximum 24 Hours After The Payment Is Completed. ProtonVPN might seem small, but it has a lot more to offer than many of the bigger players. The free version is the best we ve tested, and paid subscriptions are affordable as well. It s an excellent VPN that has invested heavily in improving its security infrastructure and practices. Hotspot Shield VPN is super fast with a slick interface, but it comes with caveats. NordVPN wraps a slick client around a strong collection of security features and an enormous network of servers.

If you re tired of edgy security products, let the strong-but-cute bears of TunnelBear VPN defend your web traffic. Easy to use and easily affordable, it s an Editors Choice winner. Avira Phantom VPN secures the web browsing of as many devices as you like, making it a great value, but it offers a small number of servers and server locations, and its app is clunky. VPN service Hide. me offers surprisingly advanced features in a simple client, but at a high price.

Antivirus company Kaspersky tests the network security waters with the easy-to-use new Secure Connection VPN service, but it s currently little more than a bare-bones offering at a bargain-basement price. Pros Best free subscription. Flexible, low-cost plans. Focus on privacy and physical security. Multihop VPN to secure locations. Slick, accessible client. Tor connections. ProtonMail bundle available. Cons Fewer servers, locations than most. Full access to servers and features only at highest pay level.

Bottom Line ProtonVPN might seem small, but it has a lot more to offer than many of the bigger players. Pros WireGuard VPN technology Multihop and Tor connections Easy to use Numerous server locations Strong customer privacy stance. Bottom Line NordVPN wraps a slick client around a strong collection of security features and an enormous network of servers.

Pango Hotspot Shield. Pros Hefty Pango services bundle Transparent, helpful privacy policies Excellent speed test scores Slick, smart desktop app. Cons Expensive Free version supported by targeted ads No transparency report or audit Limited OpenVPN support. Bottom Line Hotspot Shield VPN is super fast with a slick interface, but it comes with caveats. Pros Affordable Excellent privacy policies Annual independent audits Friendly, approachable design Browser extensions, including stand-alone ad blocker Good speed test results Bears.

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Good server distribution. Strong speed test scores. BitTorrent friendly. Supports anonymous payments. Unusual location selection behavior. No specialized servers. Bottom Line VPN service Hide. Pros Advanced features. Provides free version. Simple, elegant interface. Pros Affordable. Few servers and few server locations. No ad-blocking. Doesn t work with Netflix. Not included in Kaspersky antivirus suite pricing. Bottom Line Antivirus company Kaspersky tests the network security waters with the easy-to-use new Secure Connection VPN service, but it s currently little more than a bare-bones offering at a bargain-basement price.

How to Choose the Right VPN. Cons Lacks mobile support. 49 List Price 171. 45 ProtonVPN Plus Editors Choice 85. 50 for a one-year plan List Price 107. ExpressVPN Partner Exclusive 49 percent off a one-year plan with an extra three months for free 88. 50; Save 22 CyberGhost 82 percent off a three-year plan with an extra two months for free 75. 60 List Price 431. 04 NordVPN 70 percent off a three-year plan with bonus gift 96.

74 List Price 331. 51 ZenMate 84 percent off a three-year plan 35. 82 List Price 170. Razer Accidentally Exposed Customer Data Via Leaky Server Hackers From Russia, China, Iran Are Targeting Presidential Campaigns, Microsoft Warns How to Protect Your Front Door Deliveries Facial Recognition Is Banned in Portland, Oregon From 2021. Rashid is a senior analyst for business estrategia iq option 90 PCMag. She focuses on ways businesses can use technology to work efficiently and easily.

She is paranoid about security and privacy, and considers security implications when evaluating business technology. She has written for eWEEK, Dark Reading, and SecurityWeek covering security, core Internet infrastructure, and open source. Follow me on Twitter zdfyrashid. More From Fahmida Y. 10 Ways to Boost Your Wi-Fi Signal.

Private Internet Access VPN. The best home security cameras. Y ou don t have to look far into the future to see a time when all houses come equipped with home security cameras. In the modern day, with our rampant internet usage, we ve become surprisingly lackadaisical in our approach to home security. Just think how much information you give away when you do a simple online grocery order your name, your address, the kind of things you buy, what times you ll be around and, by extension, what times you ll be out.

You might even give instructions on how to get into your building. Startling, isn t it. We ve gone from an age when people left the lights on at home while away on holiday to deter burglars, to a world in which we happily fill out forms that advertise our absence. Still, if technology has made us vulnerable, then it can also make us secure. Tech companies have been pushing hard to innovate in the connected home CCTV camera space. Big investments by the likes of Google-owned Nest, Amazon s Blink, and up-and-coming security company Ring have made home security cameras more prominent.

In a nutshell, these cameras record both the inside and the outside of your home, and save the footage somewhere it might be in the cloud, it might be in the device itself, depending which one you buy. W hat kind of product do you need. Often, they also connect with your smartphone so you can stream live everything that s going on at home, wherever you are in the internet-connected world. I ve spent time reviewing the best home security cameras on the market.

Here s what I found. Why we like it A beautiful camera with brilliant quality video and a very easy setup. T he Nest IQ is a seriously impressive piece of technology. For starters, it looks beautiful the all-white design and black camera face are seriously spacey if eerily reminiscent of the AI in 2001 A Space Odyssey. It s far from the horrid metal CCTV box that you might call to mind when you imagine a home security camera.

Fundamentally, the Nest camera sits wherever you put it and records what it sees, saving the last five days of footage to the cloud. To see that footage, you can use an app on your phone or a browser link on your computer. So far so normal. Things start to get really interesting with the Nest s facial recognition system.

If the camera detects a face it doesn t recognise, it will send a notification and picture to your phone, allowing you to give that person the once over. If it s someone getting up to no good, the camera will follow their movements and save the timestamp, so you can easily find it in the future. And, of course, you can phone 999 while they re still in your house. T he system is smart enough to remember faces it has seen before so you don t need to keep approving family and friends every time they enter the living room.

There s a few other cool features in the camera itself such as an automatic zoom which tracks moving objects if it detects an intruder; a handy intercom function that allows the device to act as a smart doorbell although it doesn t have a chime or button for that you ll need the Nest Hello doorbell ; and, since Alphabet owns Nest, the camera carries Google Assistant. It would be easy to roll your eyes at this last point, but it means you can ask your home security camera for the weather forecast or whatever Google search takes your fancy and a speaker within the unit will reply.

It also means that if you actually saw a burglar riffle through your home, you could quickly record a message to him or her through your smartphone, and the Nest would play it aloud. Which, you imagine, would be enough to send even the most committed career criminal scampering empty-handed down the road.

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