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Several antibiotic regimens can be used for inpatient treatment, including fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and cephalosporins. Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most common serious bacterial infections in young adult women. Because of the frequency and severity of the infection, physicians must be familiar with approaches to effective management. This includes making an accurate diagnosis, deciding between inpatient and outpatient management, and selecting an appropriate antimicrobial regimen that is consistent with expert guidelines and local susceptibility data.

SORT KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE. Clinical recommendation Evidence rating Reference. A urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should be performed in women with suspected acute pyelonephritis. Initial empiric therapy should be selected based on the likely infecting uropathogen and local antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Treatment options for women with acute pyelonephritis not requiring hospitalization include 500 mg of oral ciprofloxacin Cipro twice per day for seven days; 1,000 mg of extended-release ciprofloxacin once per day for seven days; or 750 mg of levofloxacin Levaquin once per day for five days.

Oral trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole Bactrim, Septra at a dosage of 160 mg 800 mg twice per day for 14 days is an appropriate treatment choice for women with acute pyelonephritis if the uropathogen is known to be susceptible. These options are appropriate in areas where the prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones does not exceed 10 percent. Initial treatment of women with acute pyelonephritis who require hospitalization should include an intravenous antimicrobial regimen, such as a fluoroquinolone, an aminoglycoside with or without ampicillinan extended-spectrum cephalosporin or penicillin with or without an aminoglycosideor a carbapenem.

The choice of agents should be based on local resistance data, and the regimen should be tailored based on susceptibility results. A consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence; C consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series. By definition, acute pyelonephritis is an infection of the renal pelvis and kidney that usually results from ascent of a bacterial pathogen up the ureters from the bladder to the kidneys.

It is estimated that acute pyelonephritis accounts for approximately 250,000 office visits and 200,000 hospital admissions each year in opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui United States, and approximately 11 hospitalizations per 10,000 Canadian women each year. 1 3 The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is highest in otherwise healthy women 15 to 29 years of age, followed by infants and older persons.

4 Although acute pyelonephritis also occurs in men, children, and pregnant women, these groups account for only a small percentage of cases. Accordingly, this review focuses on diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in nonpregnant women. In 80 percent of acute pyelonephritis cases, Escherichia coli is the responsible pathogen in women, although it is not as common in older persons.

coliless common causative organisms include other Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosagroup B streptococci, and enterococci. Causative Organisms in Acute Pyelonephritis. Organism Prevalence. The spectrum of pathogens involved in acute pyelonephritis is similar to that of cystitis but with a lower frequency of Staphylococcus saprophyticus Table 14.Proteus species, Enterobacter species. Other Enterobacteriaceae e. Information from reference 4. During the previous decade, community-acquired bacteria particularly E.

ANTIBIOTIC Opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui. coli that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases have emerged as a cause of acute pyelonephritis worldwide. The most common risk factors for contracting these uropathogens include visits to health care centers, recent use of antimicrobial agents particularly cephalosporins and fluoroquinolonesolder age, and presence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and recurrent urinary tract infections UTIs.

4510 Older women, women who are menopausal or pregnant, and women who have preexisting urinary tract structural abnormalities or obstructions have a higher risk of UTI, but not necessarily of acute pyelonephritis. UNCOMPLICATED ACUTE PYELONEPHRITIS. COMPLICATED VS. Uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis typically occurs in healthy, young women without structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities and without relevant comorbidities.

Complicated acute pyelonephritis occurs in patients with a structurally or functionally abnormal genitourinary tract, or a predisposing medical condition. Compared with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis, complicated acute pyelonephritis is characterized by a broader spectrum of clinical presentations, a wider variety of infecting organisms including a greater likelihood of antimicrobial resistanceand a greater risk of progression to a complication, such as intrarenal or perinephric abscess or emphysematous pyelonephritis.

Clinical Diagnosis. History and physical examination are the most helpful tools for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis Table 2 12. Physicians should consider acute pyelonephritis in women presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms e.urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria accompanied by fever, nausea, vomiting, or flank pain. Flank pain is nearly universal in patients with acute pyelonephritis; its absence should raise suspicion of an alternative diagnosis.

On physical examination, the key finding is tenderness to palpation of the costovertebral angle. Patients with nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis, which also cause flank pain, do not usually present with costovertebral angle tenderness. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis. Category Findings.

Lower urinary tract symptoms e.frequency, urgency, dysuria. Upper urinary tract symptoms e. Constitutional symptoms e. Gastrointestinal symptoms e.fever, chills, malaise.nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain. Fever temperature 100. 0 Ctachycardia, hypotension. Costovertebral angle tenderness. Possible abdominal or suprapubic tenderness. Urinalysis showing positive leukocyte esterase test, microscopic pyuria or hematuria, or white blood cell casts.

Peripheral blood smear showing leukocytosis, with or without left shift. Positive blood culture in 15 to 30 percent of cases. Urine culture growing 10 5 colony-forming units per mL of urine. Information from reference 12. Fever greater than 100. 0 C is characteristic of acute pyelonephritis, but it may be absent in persons with early or mild cases. Fever may also be absent in frail, older persons or in immunocompromised persons, who also may not exhibit other classic manifestations of acute pyelonephritis.

Physicians should consider other disorders that may arise from or mimic acute pyelonephritis Table 3 12. Intrarenal and perinephric abscesses, which usually are complications of acute pyelonephritis, are more common than emphysematous pyelonephritis, which is a necrotizing infection that produces intraparenchymal gas within the kidney that is identifiable by renal imaging. 13 This disorder occurs most often in older women with diabetes. Additional complications of acute pyelonephritis that may benefit from urologic or infectious disease subspecialty consultation are listed in Table 4.

Diagnoses to Consider in Patients with Flank Pain and Costovertebral Angle Tenderness. Disorder Flank pain Costovertebral angle tenderness Fever and leukocytosis. Basilar pleural processes. Lower rib fractures. Noninfectious renal disorders including urolithiasis. Renal corticomedullary necrosis. Renal vein thrombosis. Retroperitoneal disorders e.hemorrhage, abscess. Splenic abscess or infarct.

Urinary tract obstruction. Finding typically presenttypically absentor variably present. Complications of Acute Pyelonephritis That May Benefit from Subspecialty Consultation. Complication Relevant diagnostic test Relevant subspecialty. Blood cultures, antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Urinary tract imaging. Infectious diseases, interventional radiology, urology. Extensively drug-resistant organism. Blood and urine cultures, antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Perinephric or intrarenal abscess. Interventional radiology, urology. Previous antibiotic treatment, although not diagnostically relevant, is important to consider when choosing a treatment regimen. For this reason, it should be included in the patient history when considering acute pyelonephritis. Inpatient vs. Outpatient Treatment. However, patients who appear ill may have severe pyelonephritis or a complication of acute pyelonephritis and should be considered for hospitalization and further evaluation Table 5 14.

The possibility of urinary obstruction or an alternative diagnosis should be considered in these patients. Considerations for Hospitalization in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis. Comorbid conditions e.renal dysfunction, urologic disorders, diabetes mellitus, advanced liver or cardiac disease. Metabolic derangement e.renal dysfunction, acidosis. Severe flank or abdominal pain. Unable to take liquids by mouth.

Very high fever 103 F 39. Physicians must be alert for the presence of severe sepsis and septic shock, which require urgent specialized management that is beyond the scope of this review. Information from reference 14. Most cases of uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis can be managed in the outpatient setting. Diagnostic Tests. Urine dipstick testing, microscopic urinalysis, or both are commonly used in diagnosing UTI, including acute pyelonephritis.

Most women with acute pyelonephritis have marked pyuria or a positive leukocyte esterase test, which often is accompanied by microscopic hematuria or a positive heme dipstick test. In contrast, gross hematuria is rare in patients with acute pyelonephritis and is more common in patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis. The presence of white blood cell casts indicates renal-origin pyuria, supporting the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, but casts are not often seen.

URINE CULTURE. All patients with suspected acute pyelonephritis should have a urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide possible adjustment of the initial antimicrobial regimen if there is no improvement and selection of step-down oral therapy for patients treated initially with intravenous therapy.

A midstream urine specimen after proper cleansing of the vulva is often opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui. Several studies, however, found no significant differences in the number of contaminated or unreliable culture results when voided urine specimens were collected with or without preparatory cleansing. 16 18 Obtaining a urine sample by catheterization is unnecessary. Studies have shown no differences in colony counts or organisms between samples collected by catheterization versus midstream voiding.

More than 95 percent of women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis will have greater than 10 5 colony-forming units of a single gram-negative organism per mL of urine. 19 Urine Gram stain, if available, may aid in the choice of empiric antimicrobial therapy pending culture results. If gram-positive cocci are observed, Enterococcus species or S. saprophyticus may be the causative organism. Posttreatment urinalysis and urine culture are unnecessary in patients who are asymptomatic after therapy.

However, repeat urine culture is advised if symptoms do not improve substantially within two to three days of initiation of therapy, or if symptoms recur within two weeks of treatment. These patients should also undergo urinary tract imaging. Most women with acute pyelonephritis do not need imaging studies unless symptoms do not improve or there is a recurrence. 21 The purpose of imaging is to identify an underlying structural abnormality, such as occult obstruction from a stone or an abscess 2122 Figure 1 23.

Although renal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are sometimes used, computed tomography with contrast media is considered the imaging modality of choice for nonpregnant women. Abdominal computed tomography with intravenous contrast media in a patient with acute pyelonephritis demonstrates a large right perinephric abscess crescentic low-density collection identified by arrow. Radiography of urological infections. Reprinted with permission from Tanagho E. In Tanagho EA, McAninch JW, eds.

Smith s General Urology. New York, NY McGraw-Hill; 2008 525. Because of the risk of contrast nephropathy, caution is needed when administering contrast media to patients taking metformin Glucophage or to those with renal insufficiency. However, patients with acute pyelonephritis and an acutely elevated baseline serum creatinine level may sometimes warrant computed tomography imaging as part of the evaluation to look for obstruction.

BLOOD CULTURES. Blood cultures are commonly obtained from patients with acute pyelonephritis who are ill enough to warrant hospital admission, although they may not routinely be necessary in patients with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis. 2526 Approximately 15 to 30 percent of patients with acute pyelonephritis are found to be bacteremic; older persons and those with complicated acute pyelonephritis are more likely to have bacteremia and sepsis.

However, blood cultures may be the only method of identifying the causative organism in cases of suspected acute pyelonephritis that turn out to be another disorder, such as endometritis, intraabdominal or psoas abscess, or cholangitis. There is no evidence that patients with a positive blood culture should be treated differently from those with negative blood cultures with respect to agent, route, or duration of antimicrobial therapy; hospital admission; or length of hospital stay if admitted to the hospital.

OTHER DIAGNOSTIC TESTS. The baseline evaluation of acute pyelonephritis should include a basic metabolic panel, most importantly to assess renal function. If the diagnosis is not clear, other laboratory tests e.lipase, transaminase, and beta subunit of human opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui gonadotropin levels may be appropriate to clarify the differential diagnosis. Choice of Antibiotics. In 2010, the Infectious Diseases Society of America updated its 1999 guidelines on the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women.

15 The guidelines include recommendations for antimicrobial regimens in patients with acute pyelonephritis. When choosing an antibiotic, physicians should consider the effectiveness, risk of adverse effects, and resistance rates in the local community. Because urine culture yields a causative organism in almost all cases of acute pyelonephritis, a positive blood culture is diagnostically redundant. Risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in nonpregnant women include sexual intercourse three or more times per week during the previous 30 days, UTIs in the previous 12 months, diabetes, stress incontinence in the previous 30 days, a new sex partner in the previous year, recent spermicide use, and a history of UTIs in the patient s mother.

OUTPATIENT REGIMENS. Fluoroquinolones are the preferred empiric antimicrobial class in communities where the local prevalence of resistance of community-acquired E. coli is 10 percent or less. Although not all clinical microbiology laboratories serving outpatient medical practices provide reports on the source of specimens tested for antibiotic resistance i.community-acquired versus hospital-acquiredphysicians should consider contacting their local laboratory to obtain the best available susceptibility data.

If the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance among relevant organisms does not exceed 10 percent, patients not requiring hospitalization can be treated with oral ciprofloxacin Cipro; 500 mg twice per day for seven daysor a once-daily oral fluoroquinolone, such as ciprofloxacin 1,000 mg, extended-release, for seven days or levofloxacin Levaquin; 750 mg for five days.

15 These can be given with or without an initial intravenous dose of the corresponding agent e.400 mg ciprofloxacin or 500 mg levofloxacin. An initial intravenous dose is appropriate in patients experiencing nausea or vomiting. Table 6 summarizes outpatient treatment options for nonpregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. Outpatient Treatment Options for Nonpregnant Women with Acute Pyelonephritis. Drug class Antibiotic Dosage.

500 mg orally, twice per day for seven days. 1,000 mg orally, once per day for seven days. 750 mg orally, once per day for five days. Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole Bactrim, Septra. 160 mg 800 mg orally, twice per day for 14 days. Use when prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance among Escherichia coli isolates is known to be 10 percent or less. If resistance prevalence exceeds 10 percent, see inpatient recommendations in Table 7.

There is good evidence for use from at least one properly randomized controlled trial. There is moderate evidence for use from at least one well-designed clinical trial, without randomization; from cohort or case-control analytic studies preferably from more than one center ; from multiple time-series; or from dramatic results from uncontrolled experiments.

Use if pathogen is known to be susceptible to trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. If susceptibility profile is unknown, see inpatient recommendations in Table 7. Information from reference 15. Because of the generally high prevalence of resistance to oral betalactam antibiotics and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole Bactrim, Septrathese agents usually are reserved for cases where susceptibility results for the urine isolate are known and indicate likely activity.allergy history, potential drug-drug interactions, drug availability may require the empiric use of an oral beta-lactam antibiotic or trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole before susceptibility is known.

In such cases, a long-acting, broad-spectrum parenteral drug such as ceftriaxone Rocephin; 1 g or gentamicin 5 mg per kg should be given concurrently as a one-time dose or longer to cover for possible resistance until sensitivities of the organism are known. Likewise, if the local fluoroquinolone resistance prevalence in E. coli exceeds 10 percent, an initial intravenous dose of ceftriaxone or gentamicin is recommended, followed by an oral fluoroquinolone regimen.

INPATIENT REGIMENS. 15 However, additional factors e. For women with acute pyelonephritis who require hospitalization, initial intravenous antimicrobial therapy is recommended Table 7. 15 Pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis should be hospitalized and treated initially with a second-or third-generation cephalosporin, and then assessed to determine whether further treatment as an outpatient is appropriate.

Initial and Step-Down Inpatient Treatment Options for Nonpregnant Women with Acute Pyelonephritis. 15 Options include a fluoroquinolone, an aminoglycoside with or without ampicillinan extended-spectrum cephalosporin or penicillin with or without an aminoglycosideor a carbapenem. Phase of therapy Antibiotic Dosage. 400 mg IV, twice per day. 250 to 500 mg IV, once per day. 1,000 mg IV, once per day. 5 mg per kg IV, once per day.

500 mg IV every six hours. Listed in order of priority. Continue treatment until clinical improvement or until susceptibilities are known. If symptoms do not improve, another diagnosis or a complication of acute pyelonephritis should be considered. There is moderate evidence for use from opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees.

Gentamicin or tobramycin Tobrex. Depending on renal function. Maximum dosage of 4 g per day. Use if fluoroquinolone resistance is known to be 10 percent or less, or if the isolate s fluoroquinolone susceptibility is known. Use if the isolate s trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole susceptibility is known. Monitoring Response to Therapy. Therapy with appropriate empiric antibiotics should produce improvement within 48 to 72 hours. If the patient does not improve as expected i.no progressive reduction in, or resolution of, the local and systemic signs and symptoms that led to the diagnosisstrong consideration should be given to a complication of acute pyelonephritis or an alternative diagnosis, and appropriate additional testing should be performed.

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Access This Article. Includes Immediate access to this article. The Authors. RICHARD COLGAN, MD, is an associate professor and director of medical student education in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. MOZELLA WILLIAMS, MD, is an assistant professor and assistant director of medical student education in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

JOHNSON, MD, is a professor of medicine and senior associate director of the Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, and director of the Molecular Epidemiology Unit at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center. Address correspondence to Richard Colgan, MD, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 29 South Paca St.Baltimore, MD 21201 e-mail rcolgan som. Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure Dr. Johnson receives research support from Merck, Inc.to perform molecular analysis of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. The research is not directly related to the topic of this article, and thus is not disqualifying. The other authors have no relevant financial affiliations to disclose. Epidemiology of urinary tract infection.

Foxman B, Klemstine KL, Brown PD. Acute pyelonephritis in US hospitals in 1997 hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Ann Epidemiol. Nicolle LE, Friesen D, Harding GK, Roos LL. Hospitalization for acute pyelonephritis in Manitoba, Canada, during the period from 1989 to 1992; impact of diabetes, pregnancy, and aboriginal origin. Clin Infect Dis. Czaja CA, Scholes D, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Population-based epidemiologic analysis of acute pyelonephritis.

Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE. Risk factors associated with acute pyelonephritis in healthy women. Ann Intern Med. Zahar JR, Lortholary O, Martin C, Potel G, Plesiat P, Nordmann P. Addressing the challenge of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. Oteo J, Pérez-Vázquez M, Campos J.

Extended-spectrum beta -lactamase producing Escherichia coli changing epidemiology and clinical impact. Curr Opin Infect Dis. Rooney PJ, O Leary MC, Loughrey AC, et al. Nursing homes as a reservoir of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase ESBL -producing ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. Rodríguez-Baño J, Alcalá JC, Cisneros JM, et al. Community infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

Arch Intern Med. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Complicated pyelonephritis unresolved issues. Curr Infect Dis Rep. Shoff WH, Green-McKenzie J, Edwards C, Behrman AJ, Shepherd SM. Acute pyelonephritis the differential diagnosis and workup. March 5, 2010. Accessed January 17, 2011. Michaeli J, Mogle P, Perlberg S, Heiman S, Caine M. Emphysematous pyelonephritis. Johns Hopkins Medical Center Abx Guide.

Acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis. September 15, 2008. org diagnosis genitourinary pyelonephritis subscription required. Accessed December 17, 2010. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Bradbury SM. Collection of urine specimens in general practice to clean or not to clean. J R Coll Gen Pract. Immergut MA, Gilbert EC, Frensilli FJ, Goble M. Regardless of which antibiotic is chosen for initial empiric therapy, the regimen should be revised as necessary after urine culture susceptibility results are available.

Bray PA, Corry MF. The myth of the clean catch urine specimen. Mid-stream urine collection is preparatory cleansing essential. Johnson JR, Lyons MF II, Pearce W, et al. Therapy for women hospitalized with acute pyelonephritis a randomized trial of ampicillin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days. J Infect Dis. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Mitterberger M, Pinggera GM, Colleselli D, et al. Acute pyelonephritis comparison of diagnosis with computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections. New York, NY McGraw-Hill; 2008. van Nieuwkoop C, Hoppe BP, Bonten TN, et al. Predicting the need for radiologic imaging in adults with febrile urinary tract infection. Velasco M, Martínez JA, Moreno-Martínez A, et al. Blood cultures for women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis are they necessary.

Utility of urine and blood opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui in pyelonephritis. Acad Emerg Med. Otto G, Sandberg T, Marklund BI, Ulleryd P, Svanborg C. Virulence factors and pap genotype in Escherichia coli isolates from women with acute pyelonephritis, with or without bacteremia. Finkelstein R, Kassis E, Reinhertz G, Gorenstein S, Herman P. J Hosp Infect. Wing DA, Hendershott CM, Debuque L, Millar LK.

Community-acquired urinary tract infection in adults a hospital viewpoint. Outpatient treatment of acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy after 24 weeks. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94 5 pt 1 683 688. Colgan R, Hyner S, Chu S. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in adults. In Grabe M, Bishop Opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui Bjerklund-Johansen TE, et al. Guidelines on Urological Infections. Arnhem, The Netherlands European Association of Urology EAU ; 2009 11 38.

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Bases legales de la administración de riesgos. Experto especialista IQ Ramón Edgardo Domínguez Betancourt Fecha 6 al 14 de febrero Duración 16 horas Horario jueves y viernes de 16 00 a 20 00 horas. Objetivo Comprender el marco jurídico nacional relativo a seguridad, higiene y salud ocupacional y con base en ella podrá analizar situaciones laborales relacionadas con la materia.

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Análisis de riesgos. Experto especialista IQI José Antonio Castañeda Cid del Prado Fecha 8 al 22 de mayo 15 no habrá clases Duración 16 horas Horario jueves y viernes de 16 00 a 20 00 horas. Objetivo Analizar y evaluar los riesgos que se pueden presentar en los procesos de su centro de trabajo, los posibles escenarios y las formas de administrarlos. Riesgos ambientales. Experto especialista Dr.

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